1986

Bergstrom Rowbike 1898

Lees meer

Bergstrom is one of my favorites of early rowingbikes.
It already has a cable drive on a Snek or fusee and it even has an energy storage in a spring that bursts out during the freewheeling stroke.
It will not have worked properly in this design; but the idea is great ; certainly that early in 1898!!!!!

For anyone interested in the energy storage idea; Harm den Hollander made a very clever one that works!

1994.2

1994.3

Manomotive Carriage, 1820, Schotland

Lees meer

This is almost a rowingbike

In the collection of Velorama, Nijmegen, NL

Curry landskiff 1926

Lees meer

1943.2

1943.3

1943.1

Autoskiff 1921

Lees meer

An impressive and very functional toy.

Polish rowingbike around 1936

Lees meer

Watch the great movie on:
www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdlpJqHxLxk
After 5 minutes of very impressive different bikes the last 50 seconds of this movie shows an extremely good working rowingbike.
In technical way the american rowbike is very similar to this rowingbike.

Australia Row Bicycle made by Fraser Trampoline Company

Lees meer

Francois Heyche around 1986

Lees meer

1949.1

Un Chariot a rames 1925

Lees meer

George W. Lee

Lees meer

Siegl rowingbike

Lees meer

Driewielige roeifiets van Paul de Weert, België

Lees meer

Windsurfing titles won by Derk Thijs

Lees meer

Legend:

ws: Windsurfer Class
wg: Windglider Class
oc: Open Class
hw: Sailed in different weight classes (heavy)
oa: No different weight classes (overall)

World Champion

1974 Lake Ontario, USA ws hw
1975 Bendor, France ws hw
1975 Bendor, France tandem oa
1976 Nassau, Bahama’s ws hw
1976 Port Grimaud, France tandem oa
1977 Ocho Rios, Jamaica oc oa
1978 Martinique, French Antilles wg hw

European Champion

1973 Sylt, BRD ws oa
1974 La Ciotat, France ws oa
1975 Maarssen, The Netherlands ws oa
1976 Volendam, The Netherlands ws hw
1976 Etang du Stock, France wg hw
1977 Tylösand, Sweden ws hw
1977 Möhnesee, BRD tandem oa
1978 Port Grimaud, France wg hw
1978 La Marmorrata oc oa
1980 Veerse Meer, The Netherlands wg hw

Dutch Champion

1974 Nieuwkoop ws oa
1975 Paterswolde ws oa
1976 Veere ws oa
1977 Veere ws oa
1978 Flevostrand oc oa
1978 Veere wg oa
1979 Veere wg oa
1980 Veere wg hw

Keeper of the world speed record in the 10 m2 class (19.1 knots) from October 1977 till May 1980.

Officially recognized by the R.Y.A. (Royal Yachting Association).

Delta flying:

  • 1979, Dutch record, 5 hours and 4 minutes, set in Zoutelande (it stood for +/- 2 years).

Handbiking (armpowered bicycle):

  • 21 September 1994, world hour record handbiking in the roofed velodrome of Bordeaux : 32,835 km.

Windsurfing

Lees meer

Before starting to develop the Thys 222 Rowingbike, Derk Thijs had a successful career in windsurfing (seven times world champion) and designing special surfboards.

In his early windsurfing years Derk developed several new techniques. He was the first windsurfer to perform a waterstart during the world championships on Bendor in 1975.
Pioneering on the field of technique and sport is the speciality of Derk Thijs. After he crushed the world sailing speed record for the first time ever with a windsurfing board in 1977 Derk already new the speed potential of the windsurfing board. This design, which is part of a legally registered document (January 1978), proves that Derk was the first man to build and sail (Christmas 1977) a sinker (a windsurfing board that has not got enough buoyancy to carry the sailors weight hydro-statically). It took several years before the rest of windsurfing world started building sinkers, in fact this started in Hawaii after Jaap van der Rest broke Derk’s world record on a small surfboard on Maui. Guess where Derk’s old friend Jaap van der Rest got the idea for a small board from!
The skysurfer is a type of board that became popular in the last few years. Derk predicted the skysurfer on the same drawing sheet as the sinker, almost two decades ahead!

Roger Gilmore’s list

Lees meer

IHPVA – [International Human Powered Vehicle Association] especially the Source Guide.

Kathy Bilton’s BentFolk – links to pages of hundreds of HPVers.

Legs Larry’s – Dave Larrington’s impressive site with lots of HPV info and links.

Sheldon Brown’s – superb on-line bike resource.

Tim & Alley Smith’s sites – especially Cycle Design & Construction.

BentRider Online – a complete recumbent webzine.

Kevin’s Recumbent Information Page – excellent compilation of recumbent related links.

The WISIL HPVers – Warren Beauchamp’s fine recumbent site.

Wind & Water – many innovative recreational ideas and designs thanks to Hanno Smits.

BikeRod & Kustom – webzine devoted to custom bicycles and bikes as an art form.

Chris Broome’s – site with info and links for all types of HPVs.

Recumbent Trikes – Mike Deegan’s nice trike and quad site – pictures and links.

Specialized Compilations

Land Rowers – rowed bikes, trikes and quads [24] (Revised 7/14/02)
Tilting and Lean Steer Trikes – [17]
Rear Wheel Steered Bikes and Trikes – [16] (Revised 5/25/02)
Unusual Tandems – scooters, bikes, trikes and quads [25] (Revised 5/6/02)
Walking Machines – [5]
Winter Vehicles – [8]
Convertible Bikes – … recumbent to upright, etc [7] (Revised 6/13/02)
Prone Bikes and Trikes – [9] 
Folding Bikes and Trikes – ¼ (Revised 8/2/02)
Unusual Human Powered Boats – [17]
“Extreme” Unicycles and Bikes – [19] (Revised 6/19/02)
Wacky HPV Patents – all sorts of really unusual ideas [21] (Revised 5/2/02

Velomobiles – Ethan Davis’ site devoted to enclosed HPVs.

Rear Wheel Steered HPVs – Erik Wannee’s page devoted to RWS bikes and trikes.

Tilting Trikes – Max Hall’s great compilation.

Four Wheelers (links) – Randy Swart’s compilation of quad (and trike) links.Kenguru – a site devoted to accelerated walking machines.
Unique Unicycles – many including the tallest, a tandem and one with the largest wheel.
Folding Bicycle Information – Steven Scharf’s compilation of available (1996) folders
Aquatic Velocipedes … – interesting and novel HPBs from the late 1800s. (6/3/02).

Human Powered Boats – Ron Drynan’s extensive site – contemporary HPBs.

Homebuilt Collections

Unusual Homebuilts – dozens from Ross Harrop (check out pics on page 1 and page 2.)

More Unusual Homebuilts, (2) – , (3) – photos of many unique bikes and trikes.

Unusual Home Built HPVs – (includes an HPB, a triple tandem and an ice-trike)

Homebuilt HPVs – – Steve Robson

Joe Kochanowski’s Homebuilt Bikes – (includes a semi-linear drive and a 2 position upright/recumbent)

Fast Fwd – Bram Smit’s creations include a divisible FWD low racer and a RWS delta trike.

Hezi Ismach’s Homebuilts – (includes a FWD ‘scooter’ and a prone bike.)

Para-Chunkular Constructions – several far-out homebuilts (includes a dragster and pedaled piano).

Atomic Zombie – devoted to extreme bicycle creations.

Malcolm Steck’s Homebuilts – several innovative designs (including ‘single-track trikes’).

Microship – Steve Robert’s on going travels in an amphibious pedal/solar/sail micro-trimaran. (4/8/02)

Andre Aublanc’s Homebuilts – 22 very unusual bikes and trikes built by Andre. (7/20/02)

– – Rowing Sites – –

Land Rowers

Rowbike – sliding seat bikes developed by Scott Olson.

Thys 222 Rowingbike – fixed seat bikes – the fastest available? [ Video clip and picture of 1994 PBP winner]

Aviroute – an innovative French sliding seat rowing bike.

Landrower – Sam Bennett’s lean steer rowed trike with sliding seat.

Ice Rower – Roger Gilmore’s fixed seat ice rowing concept [ Animated Illustration].

Land Rower – a pedal & row tandem trike by Steven Potter.

Frank Bokhorst’s experimental rowing trike.

RPI Student Project – picture of a rowed delta trike (1998).

Rowed Quad (picture) – a nice looking sliding seat quad.

Power Pumper – a molded fixed seat quad for kids (‘adult model soon’).

Modified Thys Rowing Bike, (2) – Warren Berger’s clever modification (bottom of page).

Row Across Canada – Kevin Thomson’s ambitious team project.

Homebuilt Rowed Trike (picture) – Sean Costin’s sliding seat tadpole trike (top of page)

Ocelot (picture) – Doug Young’s SWB multi-mode row bike (see #22).

Row Cycle (picture) – sliding seat, or arm rowed delta trike (see #23).

Curry Landskiff (diagrams) – a sliding seat rowed quad from 1928.

Old Rowed Trike (picture) – an early sliding seat rowing trike by George W Lee.

Row-K – Bjorn Koehler’s sliding seat delta trike.

Round Rowing, (pic 2), (pic 3) – Uli Siegl’s fixed seat rowed bike.

ScullTrek – interesting Slovak rowing bike with fixed handle bar – made by StrojCAD.

Paul De Weert’s Row Bike (picture) – a FWD sliding seat design.

Pirog – a portable, arm powered land rower.

French Rowingbike (picture) – a fixed seat design.

Irish Mail Car (diagram) – Roy Wilson’s design (a fixed seat, foot steered, arm rowed quad). (3/18/02)

Ruderrenner (picture), (2) – 4 place rowed quad, with coxswain.

Irish Mails – a compilation of Irish Mails and land rowers for children. – (Revised 4/25/01)

Rowing Bikes of the World – a French site devoted to rowed bikes.

Land Rowers – a compilation of rowing bikes, trikes and quads.

Boat Rowers

Front Rower – Ron Rantilla’s forward facing rowing system for boats.

Front Facing Rowing System – from Gig Harbor Boat Works.

ForwardFace! – check out Z-Rower and Water Strider (forward facing rowed HPBs).

Virus HPBs – see the Turbo and Kataram models with fixed seat and sliding rigger.

Sliding Riggers – advantages and history.

Centipede Rowing – Stephen Goodfellow’s sequential rowing concept (for shells).

Rowing Service – (Rachael Quarrel’s great source of rowing information and news.)

Row2K – (A general rowing site with lots of information and links.)

Miscellaneous Rowers

Karura – a Japanese effort to power a flapping wing HPA by fixed seat rowing.

Concept 2 – the most popular indoor rower.

Fixed Seat Erg (pictures), (2) – Warren Berger’s prototype. (bottom of page).

Old Rowed Railbike (picture), (2) – rowed railbike from 1906 (see item #122).

Rowing in Space – NASA evaluating the use of a rowing machine in orbit.

NASA Hand Car (picture) – 1991 test in shuttle’s payload bay. (4/12/02)

– – Winter HPVs (Sites) – –

Ice Rower – an idea for a fast winter HPV [ Animated Illustration].

Kick Sledding – a Nordic sport.

CrosSled, (2) – a kick sled with passenger seat and racing version.

Alaska Sparken – retailers of kick-powered vehicles (sleds and bikes).

Sled Hockey – arm propelled for the physically challenged.

Snowpod, (2), (3) – an arm powered climbing snowmobile from Mobility Engineering.

Is Cykel – an interesting ice bike in a Swedish museum.

Ice Bike (diagram) – simple plans for converting a standard bike for use on ice.

Ice Bike Races – MnHPVA (Mark Stonish)

2001 Ice HPV “Championship” – annual fun event in Minnesota.

Icebikes – an excellent site on winter bicycling.

Snowbike (picture and comments) – front ski with pedaled rear track

Snowbike – by Corimba is convertible to a 21 speed Mountain Bike.

Ice Prowler – a bike designed for the South Pole.

Ice-scull (drawing) – rendition of Iain M. Banks’ fictional HPV.

[ Also see Human Powered Vehicles for Winter ]

– – Ususual HPVs for Water (Sites) – –

Decavitator – MIT’s record holding hydrofoil boat.

HydroPed – another HP hydrofoiler.

Flying Fish – yet another pedaled hydrofoil HPB.

Trampofoil, (2) – a HPB without the ‘B’.

Scafo – a great looking German hydrofoil HPB.

AQUA-formula – sort of a pedaled delta trike for water.

PedalPro – a pedaled outboard motor.

Walk on Water – USD’s annual W0W contest.

Step Jet – … a water-walking product.

Hydro Bronc – a water walking wheel.

Leonardo da Vinci’s sketch for walking on water.

Dolphin Man – (see ‘Miscellaneous’).

Hobie Mirage – flipper powered kayaks.

Shuttle-Bike, (2) – a mountain to water-bike converting product.

Wave Bike – a high performance water bike from George Tatum.

Cross Trek – an air propeller driven HPB.

Water-cycle – an amphibious trike.

Lampi Limo – an amphibious bicycle.

Easyboat – a pedaled HPB from Italy with the ultimate underwater view.

Front Rower – Ron Rantilla’s forward facing rowing system.

Front Facing Rowing System – from Gig Harbor Boat Works.

ForwardFace! – a site devoted to development of forward facing HPBs.

Virus HPBs – see the Turbo and Kataram models with fixed seat and sliding rigger.

Sliding Riggers – advantages and history.

JetBLADE a clever pedaled paddle wheel attachment for canoes.

HPB Plans – naval architect Philip Thiel’s portfolio includes a pedaled canal barge and a dory.

[ Also see Ron Drynan’s Human Powered Boats ]

– – Unusual HPVs for Land (Sites) – –

Trikke – a novel ‘skating’ trike from California.

Kick Scooters (compilation), Xootr, Razor, Go-Ped, and Kickboard – the scooter craze.

Kickbike and Sidewalker (SidewalkerUSA) – scooters with a bicycle size front wheel.

Kickstart Scooters – several models of kickbikes and scooters.

Slida – a clever scooter/kickbike quad from New Zealand.

Homebuilt Kickbikes – by Jim Gallant.

Alaska Sparken – retailers of kick-powered vehicles (sleds and bikes).

Bouncer Bike – a scooter-like HPV powered by hopping.

Homebuilt Linear Drive Bike Len Grimwood’s MWB recumbent.

LIKEaBIKE – a nicely crafted wooden push bike for youngsters.

Spring Walker – you can put a little bounce in your step.

Bionic Boots – Keahi Seymour’s kangaroo inspired footwear.

PowerSkip – interesting Dutch jump amplifying footwear.

KanGoo Jumps – Swiss jump amplifying footwear.

Kenguru – a site devoted to accelerated walking machines.

Walking Machines – a modest compilation.

Crosskate – ‘the first true All Terrain skate’. (4/25/02)

Surfing Scooter – folding scooter powered by ‘sea-saw’ type treadle. (6/5/02)

name=Uniandbikes> name=UniSites>Unicycles

Semcycle “giraffes” – unicycles with 2 and 3 stacked wheels.

The Big One – a unicycle with 36′ wheel.

Monocycle, (2) – the rider sits inside this unicycle wheel.

Uniracer (drawing) (see #2 â�” 2nd pic) – a streamlined version of the Monocycle.

Unicycles.org and MUni (Mountain Unicycling)

John Foss’ Garage many unusual unicycles – including 1½ and 13 wheelers.

Unique Unicycles – many – including the tallest, a tandem and one with the largest wheel.

Pedoped – a pedaled walking machine (on John Foss’ site)

Unicycle.com – an online retailer with over 40 different unicycles.

name=BikeSites>Bikes

Levitator – a jumping bicycle prototype.

Skoot – a clever folding bicycle.

Strida – a rustproof folding bike with belt drive.

Phaser – a folding SWB recumbent from Human Powered Machines.

Tiny Little Bike – Drew Devereux’s small folding bike.

Folding Bicycle Information – Steven Scharf’s compilation of available (1996) folders.

Velocino – another scooter like bike.

U-Bike (Scoot-Ped) – a folding bike/scooter invented and marketed by mailto:goldscher@earthlink.net”>Allan Goldscher. – (6/15/02)

City Scooter – a 16′ stand-up bike from MCS.

Killer Tomato – Bob Durst’s two wheel ‘trike’ kinetic sculpture.

Swing Bike – with pivoting rear wheel.

Sideways Bike, (2 – #19) – Michael Killian’s sidesaddle bike with front AND rear wheel steering. (6/19/02)

Airbike – a center steered (articulated) recumbent from Germany.

Snike – an articulated upright bike from Germany.

Old RWS Bike (picture) – from 1896!

UltraBike – a commercially available pedal and hand cranked exercise bike.

HandBike – a well designed hand cycle from Mobility Engineering.

Dual Mode Bike (picture) – ride either upright or recumbent.

JoJo-Bike – a German upright/recumbent convertible

The Redundant (picture) – George Reynolds’ 26/26 convertible bike.

Rotobike – an Italian ‘no-hands’ bike.

Desert Bike – an off-road Italian bike.

Ice Prowler – a bike designed for the South Pole.

Christini AWD – an all-wheel-drive mountain bike.

Kimbike – Young Kim’s chainless FWD bicycle.

Chopper and Chunk – chopper-like bikes.

Monster Cruiser – bicycle with 36′ wheels.

Mini Monster – a novelty bike only 17 1/2 inch long.

Wheelman – a modern freewheeling high wheeler.

Penny Farthings – six models from Edlee Antique Bicycle Company.

Wooden Bikes, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10) – many from bamboo to vanished veneer.

Ype Bike – Eduardo Pinto’s wooden bike project.

Termite Taxis – plans for a nice looking no-weld LWB recumbent. (6/27/02)

World’s Largest Bicycle – over 25 feet long!

Sky Cycle II – an upright bike with a seat height of 8 feet.

Pedal Powered Lawn Mowing – attach a reel mower to your mountain bike.

HP Lawn Mower (picture) … FWD with reel mower for rear wheels.

Swiss Army Combat Bike – (for real!)

Bike Chameleon – Steven Nurse’s versatile prototype … recumbent, tandem or standard.

Homebuilt FWD Recumbent – Barnett Williams’ fully suspended, FWD, short wheelbase bent.

Tom Traylor’s FWD Recumbents – several including carbon fiber, Kevlar faired and sheet metal.

Longbow … Nice looking composite recumbent with suspension.

Kreuzotter Walter Zorn’s fully suspended carbon fiber SWB recumbent.

Carbon Fiber Prone Bike (picture) – a very nice looking design.

Risigo – bike propelled by synchronized pedals and vertical seat movements.

Wild Thing – Paul Dunham’s arm and leg powered LWB recumbent (project report).

Arm Assist Bike – mailto:DKirshner@environmentaldefense.org”>Daniel Kirshner’s SWB recumbent with arm assist (see item #1). (7/27/02)

Road Runner – Richard Thorpe’s SWB recumbent with in-motion position adjustment. (4/28/02)

Aevuum – Carlos Gomez’s SWB recumbent with innovative frame suspension. (7/2/02)

VEB – Dan Speas’ interesting ‘Variable Exercise Bicycle’. (8/11/02)

Rear Wheel Steered Bikes – Erik Wannee’s fine page devoted to RWSBs.

Recumbent History – Peter Stull’s interesting ‘The Bicycle Man’ site.

Railbikes

Bentley Railbikes – Dick Bentley’s rail bike plans (and lots of related links).

Rons Riders – rail bikes.

PedalSpeed – custom hi-tech railbikes.

Old Rowed Railbike (picture), (2) – arm rowed railbike from 1906 (see item #122).

Rail Tricycle – organized railbike tours.

Rail Bike (diagrams) – concept for bike riding on single rails. (4/7/02)

Handcars – several types of rail HPVs used in the late 1800s. (4/5/02)

Handcar Racing – a site devoted to racing modern handcars.

HPV Rail World Championship – an annual Swiss event.

Railbikes in Europe – a link compilation. (7/17/02)

name=Trikesquads> name=TrikeSites>Trikes

Tripendo – a nice looking tilting trike with full suspension.

Fun Cycle and Banana Peel – simple lean steered trikes from Trailmate.

Raven – a FWD lean steer trike.

Tilting Trikes – (Max Hall’s great compilation)

Chameleon – Bill Stites’ FWD leaning urban trike.

Baccura, (2) – a lean steered delta trike designed by Jamie MacMenemy.

Raider Recumbent Trike – Jamie MacMenemy designed lean steered FWD delta with rear suspension.

Leaning Homebuilt Trike – Thom Lester’s leaning FWD delta trike.

Lean Steer Homebuilt – Rick Wianecki’s tadpole trike.

APAK – leanable delta trike with independent rear suspension.

Pilot Lean/Steer Trike – Rick Bender’s enclosed tadpole design.

Flevobike Trike – a lean steered delta.

Hipparion – a FWD articulated delta trike.

Go-One – an articulated RWS faired trike.

RWS Homebuilt Trike – Tim Smith’s RWS delta trike project.

FWD/RWS Tadpole (homebuilt) – Dean Veale’s aluminum framed trike.

Sidewinder – a FWD, rear wheel steered, tadpole trike.

Culty – a German rear wheel steered delta trike.

FWD/RWS Trike (picture) – a fast looking low racer.

Aiolos – a folding German tadpole trike with suspension.

Lepus Foldable Trike – a delta design from Europe.

Coventry Rotary Tricycle (picture) – a two track trike from 1884!

Sanctuary Trikes – utility trikes with ½ ton capacity.

GNAT, (2) – Nick Andrew’s fully suspended, folding tadpole trike.

Land Rower – a pedal & row tandem trike by Steven Potter.

Trikesformation – Fred Trippler’s delta commuting trike

Rickshaw – 2-passenger delta arrangement.

Pedicab – several variations of a delta utility trike from Main Street Pedicabs.

Cartbike – how to build a no-weld utility trike.

Tritan – a recumbent delta trike from Human Powered Machines.

Raptor – Rich Richardson’s bolt together aluminum trike kit.

CarCycle – Bob Stuart’s nice looking enclosed trike.

Leitra – a fully enclosed, high quality tadpole trike from Germany.

Aerorider – an enclosed Dutch commuting trike with electric assist.

Cab-Bike – a fully faired recumbent tadpole trike.

L.E. – C.R.A.F.T. Andrew Phillip’s lean steered velocar.

Organic Engines’ S.U.V. an impressive lean steered delta utility trike.

A.S.Engineering – S32 – an interesting Russian FWD tadpole (Robert MacKinnon’s site).

Rear Wheel Steered Trikes – Erik Wannee’s excellent RWST page.

Hybrid Tandem Handcycle/Cycle – trike from VARNA – stoker hand-cranks with pedaled bike forward.

Lawn Mower – pedaled – Michael Shakespear’s Bachelor Thesis in Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

Tilting and Lean Steer Trikes – a modest compilation of such critters.

name=QuadSites>Quads

Crank-it – a fully suspended ‘Mountain Quad’.

Carbike – a pedaled ‘car’

Foldable Muscle Car. – Frank Didik’s folding quad.

Karbyk – a simple/fun racing quad from Italy.

Pedal Karts – low cost trikes and quads.

Pedal Cars – a great collection of children’s pedal cars. (4/26/02)

2 Bikes = 1 Quad – interesting home built quad made from 2 kids bikes.

Kinetic Sculpture Races – an annual event over land and water with one-of-a-kind HPVs.

MoonCat – University of Vermont’s 4WD, treadle powered moon buggy.

BuddyCycle – a side-by-side recumbent quad with independent drives.

Kestrel – a sociable recumbent quad from Just Two Bikes, Inc.

Animas – Greg Fisher’s off-road sociable quad.

Four Wheelers (links) – Randy Swart’s compilation of quad (and trike) links.

Racing HPVs

World HP Speed Challenge – 2001 – including Sam Whittingham’s record holding Varna Diablo.

World’s Fastest Bikes – 2000 – including Sam Whittingham’s previous record holder – Varna Mephisto.

Matt Weaver’s Edge Bikes – five high tech racing bikes.

Speed 101 – Matt Weaver’s site devoted to speed biking.

Cheetah – previous 200m record holder.

Ultimate Bike – Bruce Bursford’s carbon fiber racer.

Mini Micro Missile, (2) – .. a prone recumbent for speed trials.

Prone Racing Bike (picture) – with Thomas Wahl.

Prone Racing Trike (Picture) – a RWD tadpole configuration.

MASA Slingshot, (2) – a low racing trike from the 1970s.

Tony’s FWD Pharo Bike – a homebuilt low racer.

FWD Low Racer – prototype from Barcroft Oregon.

Wishbone”>ftp://ihpva.org/incoming/wbone2.jpg”>Wishbone (picture) … a SWB lowracer.

Vector – a fully faired racing trike from the 1980s.

Recumbent Dragster (diagrams) – a flywheel assisted trike from Jim Wilson.

Pedal Car Racing – a British site devoted to quad racing.

name=Multiperson>

Multi-person HPVs

7 Person Trike – by Eric Staller for Hammacher and ConferenceBike.

Love Bike – Eric Staller’s 5 person trike for Conference Bike

Octos – an 8 person tadpole trike.

Human Powered Bus – from Frank Didik.

Didik Duplicity – a 3 person scooter from Frank Didik

Unusual Triple (picture), (2) – with semi prone front rider and one crankset.

Just Two Bikes – side-by-side recumbent tandem.

Granny Bike – a kit for combining 2 regular bikes.

Side by Side Trike – Workman’s delta trike with independent drives.

Carbike – plans for combining two bikes.

Tandette – device for making a 3-wheel tandem from 2 bikes.

GEM (picture) – a side-by-side recumbent trike (middle of page).

2 Can – a sociable delta trike with independent drives. (3/18/02)

Sociable Recumbent Bike (picture) – (middle of page)

Sociable Trike – by Gary Adderton.

PPV – a sociable Pedal Powered Vehicle (quad) from the 1970s. (4/25/02)

ZEM – a 2-4 place pedaled Swiss quad.

Back-to-back Tandem Bike – a nice looking design from Flevobike.

Homebuilt Back-to-Back Tandem Bike – by Jim Gallant.

Back-to-back tandem trike (photo) from 1885.

SWB Kowall Tandem (picture) – recumbent with captain in front.

TriFrame – a folding tandem bike.

Sociable Bike (picture) – side-by-side on 2 wheels (near bottom of page)

Quad for three (picture) … with riders in upright position.

ZOX Dual Drive Tandem, (2) – with independent drives for captain and stoker.

Homebuilt Back-to-Back Recumbent, (2) – Ray Brick’s carbon fiber racer.

BuddyCycle – a side-by-side recumbent quad with independent drives.

Canoe-carrying Suitcase Trike Richard Guy Briggs’ modified tandem Greenspeed Trike.

Fumair Flyer, (2) – a 24-person trike.

ViewPoint Waltz … a partially recumbent ‘back-to-back’ triplet.

Six Man Bike – a one-of-a-kind built for advertising.

Quadrant – a 4 person homebuilt bike.

Runner Triple – a nice looking 3 person recumbent.

name=Drivesystems>Drive Systems

Snek – Derk Thijs’ simple cable transmission for row bikes.

String Bike – a cable drive system for bikes.

Step’n Go – a reciprocating pedal trike.

Linear Drive System – from ST Manufacturing in Japan.

Power Curve – vari-speed ‘Liquid Drive’ system.

Christini AWD – an all-wheel-drive mountain bike.

PowerCranks – independent clutched pedal cranks.

Retro-Direct Gearing, (diagram) – clever means for lower gears by pedaling backwards.

Schlumpf Bicycle Transmissions – internally geared Mountain-drive and Speed-drive.

Rohloff SPEEDHUB – 14 speed internally geared hubs.

K-drive – a semi-linear (elliptical) drive from Kingcycle.

Elliptical Drivetrain – Frank Bokhorst’s interesting project. (3/30/02)

AMIS Chainless Bicycles – a commercially available drive shaft system.

[ Also see IHPVA’s Source Guide – ]

Flying HPVs (Sites) – –

HPA Pioneers – early human powered flying efforts.

HPA Development, (2), (3), (4), (5) summaries by Nihon University.

Helios – ETS’s human powered helicopter project.

Raven – an active HPA project.

Skycycle – a project from the Burnie Tafe College of Tasmania.

Karura – a human powered Ornithopter

Human Powered Helicopter – a Cal Poly project.

White Dwarf – a pedal powered blimp.

Sblimp – a Swiss design for a pedaled blimp.

Velair – a recent German HPA.

Airglow – a British HPA.

Human Powered Hovercraft – plans available.

The Royal Aeronautical Society – Human Powered Aircraft Group (5/25/02)

[ Also see Chris Broome’s HPA links ]

name=UnderwaterSites>- – Underwater HPVs (Sites) – –

Turtle – the first human powered submarine.

Manatee – a pedaled one-man submarine.

World Submarine Invitational (1998) – HP race highlights.

Human Powered Sub Contest (2000) – annual college design competition.

Easyboat – sitting underwater, these HPB operators have a great view.

Human Powered Vehicle Patents

Underwater

| Note: Links to the US Patents below display only the front page. To |

| view the full patent, enter patent number at US Patent Office .

– – Land Rowers (Patents) – –

( Special thanks to mailto:eldberg@cstone.net” title=”E-mail Warren”>Warren Berger for his many contributions )

US 44,256 – Goodman’s fixed seat, hand steered rowing trike (1864)] (4/4/02)

US 88,366 – Case’s hand steered trike with push/pull row bar and rocking seat assist (1869)] (4/11/02)

US 224,415 – French’s clever sliding seat ‘rowed wagon’ (1880)]

US 248,531 – Troutmann’s clever rowed trike with vertical seat movement assist (1881)] (4/4/02)

US 273,815 – Carr’s innovative rowed ‘monocycle’ with steered front wheel (1883)] (3/22/02)

US 288,219 – Elliott’s sliding seat delta trike (1883)]

US 293,366 – Silver’s fixed seat delta trike – unique steering and gear adjustment (1884)] (4/4/02)

US 294,753 – Bown’s fixed seat rowed delta trike with hand steering (1884)] (4/4/02)

US 305,053 – Cumming’s rowed sliding seat delta trike (1884)]

US 305,198 – Kempster’s ‘rowing vehicle’ with sliding seat (1884)]

US 314,236 – Gormley’s rowed trike with fixed seat, foot steering and oars (1885)] (4/2/02)

US 348,325 – Hamshaw’s fixed seat delta rowing trike â�” hand steered (1886)] (4/2/02)

US 348,619 – Courtney’s sliding seat rowing trike (1886)]

US 369,860 – Kempster’s improved sliding seat trike (1887)]

US 427,110 – Quevedo’s ‘oar’ propelled and steered trike (1890)]

US 443,890 – Belyea’s interesting rowed (or linear drive) fixed seat quad (1890)] (4/4/02)

US 474,279 – Arnolds fixed seat trike â�” push/pull row lever â�” foot assist â�” hand steered (1892)] (5/17/02)

US 516,786 – Clark’s interesting rowed bike with ‘moving’ seat (1894)]

US 519,596 – Voigt’s fixed seat ‘rowed’ sled (1894)]

US 604,226 – Cain’s fixed seat row bike with legs only or leg and arm drive options (1898)] (3/22/02)

US 618,580 – Paine’s delta rowing trike with fixed seat (1899)] (3/22/02)

US 606,854 – Bergstrom’s interesting fixed seat rowing bike (1898)]

US 608,350 – Stockford’s fixed seat upright bike with arm rowing lever (1898)]

US 614,320 – Dennison’s upright bike with pivoting arm rowing lever (1898)]

US 631,531 – Sargeant’s rower with sliding seat AND foot stretcher (1899)]

US 642,544 – Burbank’s interesting ‘oar’ propelled and steered sliding seat bike (1900)]

US 651,941 – Von Wedel’s interesting arm rowed FWD velocipede (1900)] (4/15/02)

US 664,231 – Andreen’s fixed seat trike â�” linked row lever and foot pegs (1900)] (5/17/02)

US 697,104 – Pietsch’s sliding seat rowing cycle (1902)]

US 749,153 – Batchelor’s sliding seat row bike. (1904)]

US 813,741 – Rudbeck’s fixed seat delta rowing trike with hand steering (1906)] (5/9/02)

US 813,742 – another Rudbeck’s fixed seat delta rowing trike with hand steering (1906)] (4/4/02)

US 834,368 – Dew’s fixed seat rowing quad â�” hand steered (1906)] (4/4/02)

US 961,370 – Wheeler’s interesting rowed quad with steering wheel and energy storage (1910)] (4/4/02)

US 926,131 – McGowan’s sliding seat quad with rack and pinion drive (1909)]

US 968,355 – Hopkins’ fixed seat, arm rowed quad â�” foot steered (1910)] (4/23/02)

US 1,020,432 – McBarnes’ interesting fixed seat delta trike (1912)]

US 1,154,208 – Rundle’s arm rowed, foot steered quad with passenger seat (1915)] (4/15/02)

US 1,154,616 – Davis’ rowed upright bicycle with fixed seat (1915)] (4/2/02)

US 1,273,693 – Tucker’s fixed seat arm rowed cycle â�” foot steered (1918)] (4/23/02)

US 1,299,696 – Evan’s ‘oar’ rowed delta trike â�” boat shaped – for children (1919)] (5/28/02)

US 1,368,066 – Starr’s arm rowed child’s trike with rack and pinion drive (1921) (4/15/02)

US 1,439,465 – Callaghan’s arm-rowed, fixed seat quad with rack and pinion drive (1922)] (4/15/02)

US 1,455,124 – Swinland’s arm rowed quad with moving wheel base/seat movement assist (1923)] (4/16/02)

US 1,479,887 – Bitner’s fixed seat, hand and foot lever ‘rowed’ quad (1924)]

US 1,503,832 – Hubbard’s fixed seat, hand steered, children’s quad (1924)] (4/4/02)

US 1,571,202 – Karcher’s arm rowed trike with treadle and seat weighting assist (1926)]

US 1,595,857 – Coffman’s fixed seat rowed LWB bike (1926)] (4/4/02)

US 1,620,926 – Trullinger’s fixed seat rowing quad (1927)] (4/4/02)

US 1,735,601 – Curry’s rowed quad with sliding seat (1929)]

US 1,845,044 – Curry’s RWS/FWD sliding seat rowing quad (1932)]

US 2,012,683 – Johnson’s sliding seat quad (1935)]

US 2,049,345 – Young’s ‘Irish Mail’ with multi speed cable drive (1936)]

US 2,135,347 – Lorbeski’s fixed seat, hand steered rowing quad (1938)] (4/4/02)

US 2,177,793 – Taylor’s innovative sliding seat RWS tadpole velomobile (1939)]

US 2,198,717 – Bottos’ upright bike with fixed seat and pivoting row bar]

US 3,174,767 – Sendoykas’ â��oar’ rowed 3 wheeled â��boat’ for children (1965)] (5/12/02)

US 3,498,634 – Sheldon’s fixed seat rowed quad (1970)] (4/4/02)

US 3,760,905 – Dower’s row type land vehicle (1973)]

US 3,895,825 – Sink’s fixed seat bike with pivoting row lever (1975)]

US 4,126,329 – Tchernyak’s ‘oar’ propelled, sliding seat tadpole trike]

US 4,305,600 – Mendez’s ‘moving’ seat row cycle (1981)]

US 4,437,677 – Ksayian fixed seat rowed bike (1984)]

US 4,508,358 – Erel’s interesting fixed seat rowing vehicle (1985)]

US 4,632,414 – Ellefson’s sliding seat land rowing trike (1986)]

US 4,639,007 – Lawrence’s fixed set rowed land vehicle (1987)]

US 4,664,400 – Date’s unusual see-saw rowing cycle]

US 4,700,962 – Salmon’s sliding seat, seat steered“Rowcycle” (picture #23) – (1987)]

US 4,796,907 – Geller’s sliding seat row type vehicle (1989)]

US 4,811,964 – Horn’s arm rowed wheelchair] (4/2/02)

US 4,861,055 – Jones’ fixed seat pivoting row lever cycle – Power Pumper – (1989)]

US 4,886,287 – Krause’s fixed seat rowing vehicle â�” wheels (1989)]

US 4,925,200 – Jones’ fixed seat rowed delta trike or quad – Power Pumper – (1990)]

US 4,928,986 – Carpenter’s interesting fixed seat rowing cycle (1990)]

US 4,941,673 – Benett’s lean steer, sliding seat Landrower – (1990)]

US 4,976,451 – Kamenov’s sliding seat row type vehicle (1990)]

US 5,087,060 – Rogalsi’s thrust lever propelled rowed sled]

US 5,209,506 – Klopfenstein’s fixed seat arm-rowed vehicle (1993)]

US 5,272,928 – Young’s fixed seat rowing bike Ocelot – , (2) – , (3 â�” picture #22) – (1993)]

US 5,280,936 – Schmidlin’s fixed seat rowed bike (1994)]

US 5,330,218 – Escudero’s sliding seat rowing bicycle (1994)]

US 5,354,083 – Liu’s multi mode row like propulsion system]

US 5,492,349 – Ferez’s rowing/steering system]

US 5,536,029 – Gramckow’s sliding seat rowing cycle (1996)]

US 5,653,663 – McCohan’s fixed seat LWB bike with dual (alternating) row bar drives]

US 5,690,346 – Keskitalo’s fixed seat cycle with independent hand and foot ‘rowing’ levers]

US 5,826,897 – Beard’s fixed seat, flywheel assisted arm-rowing vehicle]

US 5,829,772 – Jones’ fixed seat rowed delta trike or quad –Power Pumper – ] (4/15/02)

US 5,833,256 – Gilmore’s fixed seat winter rowing vehicle –

US 5,876,052 – Olson’s sliding seat Rowbike (1999) –

US 5,997,020 – Borg’s stand-up arm rowed bike]

US 6,012,732 – Potter’s pedal & row tandem Land Rower –

US 6,086,078 – Ferez’s fixed seat row cycle]

US 6,206,394 – Olson’s sliding seat Rowbike –

US 6,276,703 – Caldwell’s arm propelled delta trike with independent wheel drives]

US 6,328,325 – Greenwood’s 4 place sliding seat land rowing quad]

US 6,352,274 – Redman’s arm rowed, fixed seat tadpole trike] (3/22/02)

US 6,375,208 – Lee’s arm rowed FWD delta trike scooter (2002)] (5/1/02)

DE 435,559 – Pohle’s sliding seat quad (1926)]

DE 2,260,626 – Bergmann’s sliding seat quad with seat suspension and ski option]

DE 2,426,011 – Herbst’s sliding seat rowing system]

DE 2,830,691 – Facco’s LWB sliding seat bike with forward coxswain]

DE 3,516,322 – Hirschmann’s slide seat rowing vehicle]

DE 3,534,974 – Geller’s sliding seat land rower]

DE 3,717,934 – Geller’s improved sliding seat land rower]

DE 4,415,611 – Steinbock’s sliding seat and feet (fixed handle bar) rowing system]

DE10,002,572 – Siegl’s fixed seat Round Rower –

DE19,525,766 – Vakulenko’s fixed seat FWD center steered cycle]

DE19,614,836 – Raatz’s sliding seat rowing and steering system]

DE19,934,817 – Schibalsky’s sliding seat, foot steered delta trike]

EP0 197,569 – De Weert’s FWD rowed bike with sliding seat (see picture) –

EP0 461,286 – Horst’s lo-rider row bike with sliding seat]

EP0 706,934 – Mareschs’ sliding seat, fixed handle bar land rower]

FR 507,212 – Falke and Salce’s sliding seat, cable driven quad (1920)]

FR 545,427 – Falke and Salce’s sliding seat, ‘oar’ driven quad (1922)]

FR 606,051 – Perret’s sliding seat rowing quad with ‘oar’ drive (1926)]

FR 612,851 – Alaphilippe’s ‘oar’ driven tadpole trike (1926)]

FR 658,935 – Paunin’s arm rowed, foot steered tadpole trike (1929)]

FR 666,011 – Quenault’s rear facing tadpole ‘boat’ with ‘oar’ drive (1929)]

FR 769,594 – Ulysse’s sliding seat row bike]

FR 775,167 – Guerineau and Giron’s sliding seat quad]

FR 793,761 – Agacho’s sliding seat delta trike]

FR 905,598 – Bollengier’s interesting fixed seat, dual drive tadpole trike]

FR 912,078 – Mandoff’s sliding seat powered tadpole trike]

FR 917,929 – Liblin’s sliding seat quad with ‘oar’ driven FWD and 4 wheel steering]

FR 929,537 – Barnasson’s fixed seat, arm rowed trike]

FR 1,364,371 – Lochon’s fixed seat, arm rowed tadpole trike]

FR 2,424,178 – Chatillon’s lean steered, sliding seat trikes]

FR 2,455,540 – LeMarchand’s interesting fixed seat delta rowing trike]

FR 2,474,431 – Chatillon’s sliding seat tilting tadpole trike]

FR 2,494,202 – Another variation of Chatillon’s sliding seat tadpole rowing trike]

FR 2,657,324 – Drapeau’s sliding seat rowing system]

FR 2,677,944 – Gerard’s sliding seat rowing trike]

FR 2,682,660 – Lesbre’s foot steer, ‘oar’ driven, sliding seat row trike â�” Ramebike (picture #10) –

FR 2,728,532 – Etienne’s interesting hand/foot linear drive – bike]

FR 2,730,170 – Lesbre’s sliding seat, foot-steered land rowers â�” Ergobike (picture #4) –

FR 2,794,098 – Suptil’s sliding seat Aviroute with expandable drive mechanism –

GB 343,338 – Lazzarotto and Congiu’s rear facing delta trike with dual ‘oar’ drives]

GB 2,151,562 – Zarco’s combined pedal and row cycle]

GB 2,303,594 – Rupp’s rowing system]

JP 10,053,186 – Yoshijirou’s fixed seat LWB row bike]

JP 51,050,142 – Takaoka’s sliding seat tandem land rower with coxswain (in Japanese)]

JP 53,007,045 – Yoshioka’a sliding seat delta trike (in Japanese)]

JP 2002029484 – Fixed seat delta trike with dual arm-rowing levers (in Japanese) (2002)] (4/21/02)

PT 101,845 – Ferreria’s sliding seat quad]

WO 94/18059 – Stickler’s sliding seat rowbike with hydraulic steering option]

WO 00/12378 – Thijs’ Snek transmission for row bikes –

WO 01/03996 – Dzvonik’s interesting sliding seat AND feet ScullTrek –

WO 01/96174 – Koehler’s sliding seat trike – Row-K –

– – Boat Rowers (Patents) – –

US 184,031 – Blakeman’s fixed seat, sliding rigger rowing system (1879)] (4/28/02)

US 185,032 – Isaacs’ unusual sliding seat AND ‘sliding row-lock’ system (1879)] (4/28/02)

US 269,924 – Elliott’s interesting sliding seat, moving oarlock system – to extend strokes (1883)] (5/5/02)

US 284,984 – Schunk’s front facing rowing gear (1883)] (4/28/02)

US 401,736 – Curlin’s paddlewheel or prop driven HPB â�” row lever with linked foot pegs (1889)] (6/3/02)

US 522,545 – Wright’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1894)] (4/28/02)

US 535,584 – Harbers’ forward facing rowing device (1895)] (4/28/02)

US 562,369 – Berron’s forward facing rowing oars (1896)] (4/28/02)

US 568,707 – Shnicke’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1896)] (4/28/02)

US 578,815 – Fryer’s propeller driven HPB â�” powered and steered by ‘oars’ (1897)] (4/28/02)

US 611,497 – Lucier’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1898)] (4/28/02)

US 718,156 – Putman’s forward facing boat rowers (1903)] (4/28/02)

US 788,884 – Buff’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1905)] (4/28/02)

US 808,720 – another of Buff’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1906)] (4/28/02)

US 892,418 – Hallman’s interesting front facing rowing mechanism (1908)] (5/17/02)

US 1,345,860 – Kohl’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1920)] (4/28/02)

US 1,381,923 – Kemp’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1921)] (5/5/02)

US 1,476,987 – Larsen’s ‘Bow Facing Oars’ (1923)] (4/28/02)

US 2,873,713 – Baastrup’s unusual pivot flap rower â�” â��row’ forward or reverse (1959)] (5/17/02)

US 3,729,369 – Trull’s forward facing rower with automatic end-of-stroke feathering] (4/28/02)

US 3,857,356 – Jewett’s unusual forward facing rower – with ‘self-surfacing’ oar blades] (4/28/02)

US 3,884,175 – Bellis’ forward facing oars â�” with storage facilitating feature] (4/28/02)

US 3,898,950 – Martin’s drop-in Oarmaster rower –

US 4,052,951 – Farr’s forward facing boat rowing system (1977)]

US 4,383,830 – Cartwright’s fixed seat, pivoting rigger rowing system (1983)] (5/2/02)

US 4,623,314 – Waugh’s fixed seat, sliding rigger, forward facing rowing arrangement (1986)] (5/2/02)

US 4,649,852 – Plantedosi’s sliding seat rower attachment â�” attached to gunnels] (4/28/02)

US 4,781,630 – Gertsch’s sliding seat, propeller driven rowing arrangement]

US 4,867,718 – duPont’s interesting ‘Hydrofoil Oars’ â�” with sliding seat (1989)] (5/2/02)

US 4,960,396 – Stolzer’s foot operated sculling device]

US 5,037,339 – Smith’s forward facing boat row apparatus]

US 5,112,951 – Humphrey’s front facing row system â�” boats (1992)]

US 5,127,859 – Rantilla’s Front Rower – forward facing rowing system (1992)]

US 5,215,482 – Henry’s front facing boat rower]

US 5,248,272 – DuPont’s front facing boat rowing device]

US 5,360,357 – Drake’s single oar, fixed seat, sideways seating HPB with outrigger]

US 5,630,739 – Mele’s forward facing boat rowing system]

US 5,647,782 – Henry’s interesting fixed seat front facing rower]

US 5,669,793 – Walton’s sliding paddle rowing device]

US 5,685,750 – Rantilla’s Front Rower â�” for boats –

US 5,899,780 – Robbins’ drop-in sliding seat rowing unit]

US 6,083,066 – Wright’s front facing rowing system â�” with automatic blade feathering option]

US 6,109,988 – Dunn’s fixed seat, moving oar lock, forward facing rowing device]

US 6,113,447 – Roy’s forward facing rowing HPB with integral riggers]

US 6,241,565 – Doroftel’s front facing sliding seat HPB â�” with unusual helical drive to a propeller] (4/26/02)

CA 2,028,867 – Dustan’s forward facing rowing apparatus]

CA 2,269,516 – Salvail’s front facing HPB]

DE 3,205,905 – Nowatny’s front facing paddling device]

DE 3,609,299 – Affeld’s front facing rowing system]

DE 3,729,651 – Woelky’s sliding seat water jet propulsion]

DE 3,902,367 – Werner’s linear rower with sliding seat]

DE 3,925,387 – Trauten’s sliding seat air-jet system]

DE 4,341,781 – Werner’s between hull catamaran rower]

FR 800,666 – Ravon’s sliding seat rowing system with paddlewheel or prop drive]

FR 2,577,513 – Hurtaud’s forward facing boat rowing system]

FR 2,603,248 – Girard’s front facing rowing system – boats]

FR 2,705,081 – Lefeuvre’s front boat rowing system]

GB 2,101,946 – Waugh’s forward facing boat rower]

GB 2,118,506 – Byung’s row driven propeller system]

GB 2,233,946 – Dunstan’s front rowing system for boats]

GB 2,322,610 – Davis’ hydrofoil rowing boat]

WO 95/13963 – Capuzzo’s front rowing system for boats]

– – Rail HPVs (Patents) – –

( Thanks to mailto:eldberg@cstone.net” title=”E-mail Warren”>Warren Berger for this contribution )

US 167,119 – Ray’s hand-car quad with dual row lever drive (1875)] (4/11/02)

US 213,254 – Sheffield’s recumbent hand-car with foot pegs linked to row lever (1879)] (4/8/02)

US 225,585 – Fox’s pedaled ‘Railway Velocipede’ with reversible seating direction (1880)] (4/21/02)

US 226,304 – Glover’s 4 person hand-car with dual tandem row lever drives and 4 wheels (1880)] (4/8/02)

US 246,000 – Ferres’ 2WD arrangement with push/pull lever drive (1881)] (4/8/02)

US 249,895 – Campbell and Prindle’s pedaled ‘Railroad Velocipede’ (1881)] (4/21/02)

US 260,903 – Sheffield’s face-to-face tandem hand car â�” row lever propelled (1882)] (4/8/02)

US 269,237 – Sheffield’s clever hand-car with seat movement assist between rowing strokes (1882)] (4/8/02)

US 269,490 – Walz’s clever FWD system with seat movement assist between strokes (1882)] (4/8/02)

US 269,906 – Willits’ FWD row lever drive with on-demand seat movement assist (1883)] (4/8/02)

US 270,320 – Linsley’s row lever, foot-peg propelled hand car with retractable outrigger (1883)] (4/8/02)

US 270,480 – Randall’s FWD hand car with options of side-by-side seating and electric assist (1883)] (4/8/02)

US 271,720 – Linsley’s rowed hand car with rack and pinion drive (1883)] (4/8/02)

US 288,507 – Spencer’s rowed rail vehicle with seat movement assist between strokes (1883)] (4/8/02)

US 286,623 – McGaffey’s FWD hand-car with push/pull row lever drive (1883)] (4/8/02)

US 447,935 – Brady’s pedaled upright rail-bike with row lever assist and outrigger (1891)] (4/8/02)

US 462,908 – Brady’s pedaled upright single or tandem rail bike (1891)] (4/8/02)

US 468,671 – Mann’s face-to-face tandem hand car with common row lever (1892)] (4/8/02)

US 468,673 – Mann’s row lever and foot-peg propelled hand car with outrigger (1892)] (4/8/02)

US 468,674 – another of Mann’s row lever and foot-peg propelled hand cars (1892)] (4/8/02)

US 492,337 – Randolph’s face-to-face tandem hand car with common row lever (1893)] (4/8/02)

US 495,529 – Taft’s face-to-face tandem 4 wheel hand car with common row lever (1893)] (4/8/02)

US 514,449 – Donovan’s pedaled upright rail bike with dual row lever assist (1894)] (4/8/02)

US 542,326 – Brady’s upright rail trike with pedal cranks and on-demand row lever assist (1895)] (4/8/02)

US 550,520 – Mellor’s upright ‘Railway Tricycle’ – pedaled (1895)] (4/21/02)

US 567,362 – Small’s hand-car quad with dual row lever drive (1896)] (4/11/02)

US 601,439 – Heaton’s 2WD vehicle with dual reciprocating row lever drive (1898)] (4/8/02)

US 611,808 – Donovan’s rail quad â�” propelled by row lever with linked foot pegs (1898)] (4/8/02)

US 617,344 – Milliron’s ‘Hand Car’ â�” 6 wheels â�” mid wheel drive via pump type lever (1899)] (5/1502)

US 645,115 – Mattews’ rail bike with push/pull row lever and retractable outrigger (1900)] (4/8/02)

US 693,128 – Gorneman’s device for converting an upright bike for use on rails (1902)] (4/21/02)

US 734,491 – Brady’s pedaled upright rail bike with row lever assist (1903)] (4/8/02)

US 753,106 – Pierce’s pedaled ‘Railway Velocipede’ (1904)] (4/21/02)

US 783,463 – Reed’s low profile rail bike with row lever and linked foot slide (1905)] (4/8/02)

US 890,790 – O’Connor’s rail velocipede with row lever and linked foot pegs (1908)] (4/8/02)

US 925,818 – Mangels’ arm rowed multi-person ‘boats’ and parallel race tracks (1894)] (4/8/02)

US 941,420 – Kerr’s arm rowed rail dicycle (1909)] (4/8/02)

US 1,013,041 – Mossman’s face-to-face tandem rail car with common push/pull row lever (1911)] (4/8/02)

US 1,107,579 – Brady’s pedaled upright rail bike with linked row lever and outrigger (1914)] (4/8/02)

US 1,254,434 – Rea’s attachment for converting upright bicycles for use on rails (1918)] (4/21/02)

US 1,436,532 – Revny’s apparatus for converting upright cycles for railways (1922)] (4/21/02)

US 4,230,046 – Smart’s clever rail-or-road convertible upright bicycle (1980)] (4/21/02)

DE 2,225,845 – Veltmann’s hanging monorail cycle â�” pedaled (1973)] (4/21/02)

JP2001334933 – Noguchi’s ‘Cycling Train’ with multiple upright bikes (in Japanese) (2001)] (4/21/02)

WO 98/46466 – Burman’s upright rail bike with outrigger (1999)] (4/21/02)

– – Winter HPVs (Patents) – –

US 500,826 – Thacher’s oar propelled ice boat (1893)]

US 519,596 – Voigt’s fixed seat ‘rowed’ sled (1894)]

US 526,556 – Bolton’s pedaled ‘Ice Velocipede’] (4/26/02)

US 541,426 – Detreux’s upright ‘Traction Vehicle’ â�” pedaled track with wheel forward] (4/26/02)

US 551,442 – Korff’s ‘Ice Velocipede’ – pedaled (1895)]

US 654,291 – Stith’s bike with conveyor-belt like traction wheels (1900)]

US 869,170 – Foote’s hand powered sled (1907)]

US 1,070,158 – Mercier’s hand powered sled (1913)]

US 1,318,166 – Matheus’ pedaled sled with spring loaded track] (4/26/02)

US 1,604,245 – Taylor’s hand powered, flexible ‘paddlewheel’ propelled sled (1926)]

US 2,475,250 – Petersen’s complex looking ‘Runner Vehicle’ – pedaled]

US 3,336,037 – Brozovich’s pedaled ice vehicle]

US 3,441,285 – Rogers’ device for using bikes on ice or snow]

US 3,833,233 – Sugiyama’s pedaled snow vehicle with retractable drive wheel (1974)]

US 3,915,468 – Hoareau’s pedaled track snow bike]

US 3,931,983 – Kanouse’s snow cycle]

US 3,960,387 – Nerio’s HP snowmobile for children]

US 4,146,101 – Plourde’s snow cycle – pedaled or motor driven track (1979)]

US 4,168,841 – Uhlyarik’s bicycle conversion system for use on ice and snow]

US 4,466,626 – Leritz’s ice/snow vehicle â�” pedaled, retractable rear wheel (1984)]

US 4,592,563 – Dean’s reciprocating drive vehicle]

US 4,828,280 – Kies’ pedaled ice bike with runners and retractable wheel (1989)]

US 5,087,060 – Rogalsi’s rowed sled – thrust levers]

US 5,102,153 – Rhode’s bike to snow cycle converting kit – pedaled track drive (1992)]

US 5,423,559 – another Rhode’s snow cycle]

US 5,433,466 – Timmer’s bicycle attachment for over-width rear wheel and forward ski] (4/26/02)

US 5,482,302 – Yu’s pedaled skibob (1996]

US 5,738,361 – Landucci’s pedaled track snow cycle]

US 5,833,256 – Gilmore’s Ice Rower – Animated Illustration –

US 6,112,840 – Forbes’ snow cycle â�” pedaled or motor driven track with forward ski (2000)] (5/6/02)

US 6,164,670 – Abarca’s pedaled track snow cycle]

US 6,279,923 – Cardillo’s snow cycle with pedaled rear track and forward ski (2001)]

CA 2,127,159 – Riopelle’s Ice Cycle â�” pedaled FWD with rear runners (1994)]

CA 2,154,729 – Savard’s pedaled track type snow bike (1997}]

CA 2,299,718 – Millstein’s pedaled track snow cycle (2000)]

DE 4,308,414 – Lubos’s pedaled bike attachment â�” for skis and drive wheel elevation adjustments (1994)]

DE19,609,837 – Schulze’s pedaled ice bike â�” drive wheel and adjustable rear runner (1997)]

EP 799,763 – Mauro’s pedaled snow bike â�” 3 skis and rear drive wheel (1997)]

WO 99/43540 – Forbes’ snow cycle â�” pedaled or motor driven track with forward ski (2000)]

– – Water Walkers (Patents) – –

US 22,457 – Rowlands’ two section ‘Life Raft’ walkers (1858)]

US 838,986 – Hannan’s ‘Water Shoe’ (1906)]

US 974,520 – Risso’s interesting paddle wheel propelled water skis (1910)]

US 1,013,818 – Rochat’s amphibious water skates (1912)] (5/1/02)

US 1,014,993 – Anderson’s HP water ‘skees’]

US 1,057,731 – Halbow’s interconnected water skis with rudder (1913)]

US 1,248,013 – Risso’s improved paddle wheel propelled water skis (1917)]

US 1,264,523 – Jelalian’s balloon assisted water walkers (1918)]

US 1,275,727 – Niec’s ‘Water Skates’ (1918)]

US 1,413,602 – Michalski’s ‘Water Skates’ (1922)]

US 1,476,905 – Mardus’ ‘Water Shoes’]

US 1,533,023 – Meredith’s HP water skis (1925)]

US 1,692,055 – Sheldon’s interconnected water walking skis â�” with rudder (1928)] (5/8/02)

US 1,693,967 – Reinwald’s ‘water shoes’ (1928)]

US 1,714,352 – Echola’s water walking skis]

US 2,153,939 – Schaupp’s connected water skis]

US 2,297,496 – Pomilio’s clever water walking skis with buoyant mid hull (1942)

US 2,430,466 – Hedman’s inflatable ‘Air Boots’ (1945)] (5/17/02)

US 2,482,074 – Stephens’ buoyant water skis â�” multiple pivoting fin enabled (1946] (5/1/02)

US 2,651,790 – Geiger’s liftable water shoes]

US 2,694,209 – Lippincott’s HP water skis (1954)]

US 2,707,789 – Brown’s ‘Pontoon Water Skates’ – inflatable with pivoting fin drive (1955)] (5/1/02)

US 2,893,021 – Lundborg’s ‘Water Ski Poles’ – for water walkers (1959)] (5/1/02)

US 3,015,830 – Clark’s buoyant water walking skis â�” with retractable fin drive (1962)] (5/1/02)

US 3,031,696 – Brabb’s water walking skis (1962)]

US 3,034,157 – Abajian’s water walking skis (1962)]

US 3,063,071 – Van Vorst’s ‘Traction Activated Skis’ (1962)]

US 3,112,504 – Carlton’s HP ‘Water Shoes’ (1963)]

US 3,121,892 – Plumlees’s ‘Floating Skis’ (1964)]

US 3,134,114 – Stimm’s ‘Buoyant Shoes’]

US 3,284,824 – Chymbur’s water walking shoes]

US 3,479,674 – Beymer’s HP water jet shoes (1969)]

US 3,541,623 – Duda’s enhanced traction water skis (1970)]

US 3,566,427 – Davis’ water walkers – forward movement biased bottom shape (1969)] (5/17/02)

US 3,601,828 – Fairchild’s ‘water-walking apparatus’ (1971)]

US 3,606,624 – La Rocca’s weight shift propelled water shoes (1971)]

US 3,609,782 – Mabuchi’s weighting activated linked water skis (1969)]

US 3,621,500 – Senghas’ interesting ‘Water Walking Stilts’ (1971)] (5/1/02)

US 3,716,881 – Tilings’ buoyant HP skis (1973)]

US 3,745,187 – Livaudais’ walk on water device]

US 3,747,236 – Sidlauskus’ ‘Floatation Shoes’ with pivoting vanes on bottom (1973)] (5/17/02)

US 3,750,203 – Ceccato’s inflatable water walking skis with pole propulsion assist (1973)]

US 3,758,898 – Dougherty’s ‘Wading Pontoons’ with adjustable buoyancy and flippers (1973)] (5/1/02)

US 3,783,532 – Harradine’s buoyant ‘Water Shoes’ â�” flexible fins attached to bottom (1974)] (5/17/02)

US 3,808,622 – Webster’s water walker (1974)]

US 3,833,956 – Meehan’s ‘Water Skates’ – foot movements vertically move underwater fin (1974)]

US 3,835,494 – Dougherty’s ‘Water Walking Pontoons’ (1974)]

US 3,877,409 – Krogseng’s interesting water skis with paddle wheel drives and rudders (1775)]

US 3,936,897 – Schaumann’s ‘Buoyant Water Walkers’]

US 3,952,353 – Word’s inflatable devise to convert water skis to water walkers (1976)]

US 4,034,430 – Joyce’s water walking skis (1977)]

US 4,037,280 – Klepsch’s water or land walking apparatus â�” ‘L’ cross section, pivoting vanes (1977)] (5/1/02)

US 4,060,866 – Robinson’s inflatable and interconnected buoyant water skis â�” paddle assisted (1977)] (5/1/02)

US 4,117,562 – Another of Schaumann’s water walkers (1978)]

US 4,129,912 – Robinson’s paddled skis with legs controlled rudders (1978)]

US 4,154,188 – Flagg’s water walking wheel (1979)]

US 4,157,597 – Trebnick’s Operator Propelled water skis (1979)]

US 4,261,069 – one of Schaumann’s walk on water devices (1981)]

US 4,530,668 – Braun’s liftable walking walkers (1985)]

US 4,541,809 – another of Schaumann’s water walkers (1985)]

US 4,599,072 – Pollini’s ‘Towless Aquatic Skis’ â�” with thrust poles (1986)] (5/1/02)

US 4,618,329 – Celez’s ‘Water Sliders’ â�” forward movement biased tail shape (1986)] (5/17/02)

US 4,698,039 – Watson’s water walking apparatus (1987)]

US 4,731,039 – Zeiss’ walk on water device (1988)]

US 4,801,284 – Lieu’s ‘Water Walking Shoes’ (1989)]

US 4,804,345 – Lee’s towless water skis with buoyant propulsion poles (1989)] (5/1/02)

US 4,846,743 – Chang’s water walking shoes (1989)]

US 4,915,659 – Sanders’ water or land walking skis â�” ridges and flexible cups on bottom (1990)] (5/17/02)

US 4,952,184 – Graziano’s water walker (1990)]

US 4,954,106 – Shuh-Chin’s stepping activated water jet propelled skis (1990)]

US 4,985,006 – Brunet’s ‘hydro dynamically designed’ water walking skis (1991)]

US 5,080,621 – Nayes’ water walking apparatus (1992)]

US 5,192,237 – Pegoraro’s stepping activated water walking skis]

US 5,194,023 – Stone’s skiing type propulsion (1993)]

US 5,236,381 – Keogh’s water walking skis (1993)]

US 5,277,636 – Seith’s water walking skis (1994)] (5/1/02)

US 5,421,759 – Morin’s water walker (1995)]

US 5,445,549 – Lekhtman’s walking motion propelled catamaran]

US 5,462,466 – Hull’s weight shift activated linked skis]

US 5,558,553 – Okano’s water walker (1996)]

US 5,593,334 – Thayer’s walk on water apparatus (1997)]

US 5,607,331 – Lekhtman’s Step Jet –

US 5,616,060 – Morin’s leg support apparatus for HP water skis]

US 5,697,822 – Souter’s water walker]

US 5,860,841 – Welz’s oar assisted water walkers]

CA 664,576 – Stimm’s walk on water apparatus]

CA 2,223,343 – Welz’s water walker]

EP 523,787 – Paolo’s water walking skis]

name=NotPedWaterPat>Not Pedaled � Water

US 381,729 – Tibbles’ paddle wheel propelled boat â�” operated by dual hand levers (1888)] (5/15/02)

US 637,051 – Wasek’s swinging foot pedal HPB drive â�” paddlewheel or prop (1899)] (4/22/02)

US 1,692,753 – Meyer’s hand cranked prop drive for swimmers (1928)] (5/15/02)

US 2,021,815 – Strout’s manually operated whale tail outboard drive unit (1935)] (5/8/02)

US 2,367,765 – Fickler’s manually operated whale tail outboard drive unit (1945)] (5/8/02)

US 2,518,808 – Nadolinski’s hand cranked ‘outboard motor’] (4/21/02)

US 2,520,804 – Hollar’s fin propelled HPB â�” operated by side-to-side rocking motions (1950)] (5/8/02)

US 2,555,886 – Jones’ foot activated sculling fin for HPB steering and propulsion (1951)] (5/2/02)

US 2,592,498 – Wells’ foot pedal operated paddling system for boats (1952)] (5/15/02)

US 2,684,045 – Cato’s hand cranked ‘outboard motor’] (4/22/02)

US 2,803,837 – Virobik’s unusual no-hands ‘Sportsman’s Boat’ â�” wet feet enabled (1957)] (5/2/02)

US 2,962,283 – Casey’s manually propelled fish tail – on fish shaped HPB (1960)] (5/8/02)

US 3,010,421 – Perkins’ hand cranked outboard – flexible drive shaft (1961)] (5/2/02)

US 3,019,760 – Berliner’s surfboard with treadle driven propeller (1962)] (5/5/02)

US 3,039,422 – Baker’s swing pedal operated paddling system for boats (1962)] (5/15/02)

US 3,139,061 – Johnston’s semi-linear driven â��fish tail’ for HPBs (1964)] (5/15/02)

US 3,180,306 – Gouedy’s prone ridden craft with dual hand cranked paddlewheels (1964)] (5/5/02)

US 3,272,173 – Avellino’s hand cranked, prop driven HPB for children (1966)] (5/5/02)

US 3,361,106 – Hildrebrand’s HPB with manually operated fish tail propulsion (1968)] (5/8/02)

US 3,408,976 – Ellis’ water-jet propelled surfboard â�” manual (or electric) (1968)] (5/1/02)

US 3,426,722 – Dragich’s fin type ‘Swimming Aid’ â�” leg operated (5/1/02)

US 3,487,806 – Ch’iu’s water-jet propelled catamaran â�” foot sea-saw enabled (1970)] (5/1/02)

US 3,695,211 – Gross’ boat propelled by swim fin linked to foot levers (1972)] (5/5/02)

US 3,718,109 – Skitsko’s stand-up HPB – propelled by imparting pitching movements (1973)] (5/5/02)

US 3,756,187 – Livaudais’ catamaran – propelled by ‘walking’ motions while seated (1973)] (5/8/02)

US 3,874,319 – Martin’s HPB â�” prone user, hand cranked paddlewheels â�” foot operated flaps (1975)] (5/1502)

US 3,903,834 – Velandia Arevalo’s hand cranked, foot steered, prone position craft – prop (1975)] (5/5/02)

US 3,971,330 – French’s manually operated outboard ‘propulsion pump’ for HPBs (1976)] (5/1/02)

US 4,389,196 – Gander’s ‘swivel fin’ propelled HPB]

US 4,464,126 – Maisonneuve’s stand up HPB â�” whale tail operated by push pull lever (1984)] (5/8/02)

US 4,576,580 – Gulko’s catamaran â�” propelled (?) by boards attached to underwater pedals (1986)] (5/6/02)

US 4,642,056 – Keivanjah’s fin (as in fish tail) powered catamaran]

US 4,795,381 – Willem’s treadle drive recumbent HPB]

– su]www.delphion.com/cgi-bin/viewpat.cmd/US04926777__”>US 4,926,777 – Davis’ floating amphibious wheelchair with manually turned paddle wheels (1990)] (5/5/02)

US 4,968,273 – Momot’s stand up craft â�” whale tail propelled â�” sea saw motion enabled (1990)] (5/8/02)

US 5,127,855 – Heywood’s interesting HPB â�” propelled by vertical moving pedaled foil (1992)] (5/6/02)

US 5,145,424 – Han’s ‘sea-saw’ (weight shift) operated propeller driven boat (1992)] (5/5/02)

US 5,163,857 – Hinsley’s flexible fin propelled HPB â�” reciprocating foot pedal enabled (1992)] (5/2/02)

US 5,194,023 – Stone’s HPB operated by x-country ski motions â�” complete with poles (1993)] (5/2/02)

US 5,427,554 – Foglia’a trimaran with dual manually driven paddle wheels (1995)]

US 5,441,454 – Race’s ‘seesaw’ propelled catamaran]

US 5,445,549 – Lekhtman’s walking motion propelled catamaran]

US 5,453,031 – Gagnier’s hand cranked paddle wheel HPB]

US 5,549,491 – Domancic’s HP fin drive system]

US 5,577,940 – Adler’s articulated paddle wheel HPB]

US 5,584,732 – Owen’s HPB paddle system]

US 5,702,274 – White’s ski-machine powered HydoSkier –

US 5,743,772 – Assawah’s propulsion device for swimmers]

US 5,785,564 – Von Ohain’s hydro-foil paddlewheel driven HPB â�” with linear foot drive (1998)]

US 5,816,871 – Proverbio’s stand-up HPB – propelled by imparting pitching movements (1998)] (5/5/02)

US 5,938,489 – McNeil’s ‘Leg-Powered Boat’ â�” with sliding seat driven pivoting flap] (5/1/02)

US 5,997,369 – Triantafyllon’s ‘fish like’ HPB]

US 6,022,249 – Ketterman’sHobie Mirage boat flippers –

US 6,033,276 – Han’s surfboard like fin propelled water craft â�” prone user (2000)]

US 6,077,134 – Lam’ HPBs include catamaran with hand lever enabled fish tail propulsion (2000)] (5/5/02)

US 6,099,369 – Puzey’s human powered hydrofoil â�” Trampofoil – (5/1/02)

US 6,241,565 – Doroftel’s front facing sliding seat HPB â�” with unusual helical drive to a propeller] (4/26/02)

US 6,375,530 – Earl’s ‘Whaletail’ device for swimmers (2002)] (5/1/02)

DE 3,436,924 – Huber’s linear driven propeller system for HPBs]

DE 4,212,920 – Henker’s fin propelled catamaran]

FR 761,581 – Schaeffer’s recumbent HPB with reciprocating foot drive] (4/22/02)

GB 329,038 – Holworthy’s recumbent watercraft with reciprocating foot drive (1930)] (4/22/02)

GR 80,979 – Emmanouilidis’ pivoting row bar propelled boat]

Pedaled � Water

US 577,269 – Powley’s bicycle powered (via prop) catamaran (1897)] (4/22/02)

US 586,851 – Knepper’s pedaled craft with buoyant fore and aft paddle wheels (1897)] (4/22/02)

US 637,547 – Clark’s ‘Marine Velocipede’ â�” pedaled prop driven catamaran (1899)] (4/22/02)

US 839,476 – Hartlett’s system for adapting bikes ‘to cross streams’ (1906)]

US 858,093 – Mitchell’s ‘Nautical Velocipede’ â�” 3 pedaled pontoons (1899)] (4/22/02)

US 956,533 – Krause’s ‘Marine Bicycle’ â�” pedaled belt with pivoting flaps â�” rudder aft (1910)] (5/15/02)

US 1,072,027 – Mosteller’s unusual in-water hand and foot cranked ‘Water Bicycle’ (1913)] (5/2/02)

US 1,244,073 – Pavese’s pedaled amphibious boat â�” prop and/or front wheel driven (1917)] (5/15/02)

US 1,578,395 – Chapin’s pedaled ‘Water Bicycle’ â�” propeller driven (1926)] (5/5/02)

US 1,761,883 – Froedtert’s pedaled, prop driven catamaran â�” with retractable features (1930)] (5/2/02)

US 2,273,327 – Metaxas’ pedaled propeller drive arrangement for boats (1942)] (5/6/02)

US 2,420,422 – Gilliam’s unusual pedaled HPB â�” with prop drive (1946)] (5/5/02)

US 2,468,889 – Montalbano’s ‘portable’ pedaled paddle wheel drive for boats â�” rudder aft (1949)] (5/15/02)

US 2,484,720 – Montalbano’s pedaled outboard HPB drive] (4/22/02)

US 2,542,143 – Jones’ pedaled HPB for prone swimmers] (4/22/02)

US 2,663,278 – Skinner’s ‘Water Bicycle’ â�” 3 floats (delta) and paddles on pedals (1953)] (5/17/02)

US 2,910,035 – Johnson’s pedaled paddle wheel system]

US 2,990,804 – Garehime’s unusual pedaled quad â�” collapsible with four buoyant spheres (1961)] (5/6/02)

US 2,990,805 – Jacus’ HPB with under-water pedals and prop (1961)] (5/2/02)

US 3,083,382 – Etal’s pedaled recumbent catamaran â�” prop driven with fore and aft rudders (1963)] (5/6/02)

US 3,143,992 – Beams’ pedaled paddle wheel ‘Pontoon Boat’- rudder aft (1964)] (5/15/02)

US 3,211,125 – Yarbrough’s pedaled outboard drive for HPBs] (4/22/02)

US 3,249,084 – Plants’ ‘Water Tricycle’ â�” buoyant steerable â��paddle wheels’ forward (1966)] (5/15/02)

US 3,257,987 – Liard’s foldable ‘Water Cycle’ â�” pedaled propeller (1966)] (5/2/02)

US 3,352,276 – Zimmerman’s pedaled pontoon boat â�” prop â�” forward rudder (1967)] (5/15/02)

US 3,410,244 – Graham’s ‘Amphibous Boat’ â�” pedaled paddle wheels – catamaran (1968)] (5/15/02)

US 3,440,995 – Welch’s pedaled outboard propulsion unit with flexible drive shaft (1969)] (5/2/02)

US 3,570,436 – Le Vaseur’s ‘Submersible Water Bicycle]

US 3,640,239 – Petroskey’s bike attachment comprising 4 floats and paddle wheel (1972)] (4/22/02)

US 3,954,079 – Gof’s amphibious catamaran bicycle â�” prop driven in water (1976)] (5/15/02)

US 3,999,501 – Duarte’s 2 segment, knockdown pedaled paddlewheel HPB (1976)] (5/2/02)

US 4,072,124 – Meyrin’s HPB with pedaled inflatable wheels]

US 4,170,188 – Jamison’s interesting HPB drive attachment for bicycles (1979)] (5/2/02)

US 4,285,674 – Chew’s attachment for bicycles to permit use on water (1981)] (5/8/02)

US 4,317,422 – Gabriel’s bike adaptation for water]

US 4,318,700 – Price’s pedaled paddlewheel driven catamaran (1982)] (5/2/02)

US 4,323,352 – Warren’s Cerf Cycle a multi propeller pedaled catamaran]

US 4,349,340 – Hoffmann’s pedaled hydrofoil boat â�” with air propeller (1982)] (5/2/02)

US 4,395,237 – Watanabe’s amphibious bicycle]

US 4,427,392 – Schneider’s pedal driven outboard propeller and steering device (1984)] (5/2/02)

US 4,459,116 – Moore’s pedaled catamaran]

US 4,474,502 – Daoud’s pedaled surfboard â�” prop drive with aft rudder] (4/22/02)

US 4,493,657 – Zietler’s bike conversion for water]

US 4,493,658 – Hildebrand’s pedaled HPB with dual paddle wheels (1985)] (5/2/02)

US 4,496,325 – Tweg’s recumbent catamaran – propelled by pedaled paddles] (4/22/02)

US 4,511,338 – Fanelli’s pedaled paddlewheel attachment for sail boards (1985)] (5/5/02)

US 4,533,330 – Chun’s pedal powered amphibious sailboat (1985)] (5/2/02)

US 4,631,037 – Dicken’s pedaled paddle wheel HPB]

US 4,648,846 – Hsu’s inflatable pedaled catamaran â�” prop driven (1987)] (5/6/02)

US 4,698,034 – Anthonijsz’s pedaled catamaran â�” prop driven (1987)] (5/2/02)

US 4,772,237 – Zalkauskas’ pedaled HPB propelled by ‘track’ with pivoting vanes (1988)] (5/6/02)

US 4,789,365 – Jones’ bicycle powered catamaran (1988)]

US 4,828,517 – van Liefland’s ‘Portable Water Bicycle’ â�” pedaled paddlewheels (1989)] (5/6/02)

US 4,891,024 – Benjamin’s pedaled outboard – Pedal Pro (1990) –

US 4,936,801 – Herrit’s bicycle propelled and steered catamaran] (4/22/02)

US 4,943,251 – Lerach’s pedaled outboard HPB drive (1990)] (5/2/02)

US 4,968,274 – Gregory’s pedaled catamaran with ‘lean steering’ – Water Bike – (1990)]

US 5,011,441 – Foley’s pedaled catamaran â�” prop driven (1991)]

US 5,178,088 – Howard’s pedaled amphibious vehicle]

US 5,183,422 – Guiboche’s inflatable ring â�” with pedaled paddlewheels (1993)] (5/6/02)

US 5,194,024 – Shiraki’s ‘Propeller Driven Surfboard’ – pedaled (1993)] (5/2/02)

US 5,217,398 – Meron’s ‘Pedal Operated Catamaran’ â�” prop driven (1993)]

US 5,224,886 – Cunningham’s bicycle driven catamaran â�” with prop (1993)] (5/2/02)

US 5,282,762 – Cerreto’s portable HPB prop drive and steering mechanism â�” pedaled (1994)] (5/6/02)

US 5,308,268 – Schmid’s pedaled trimaran with inflatable hulls]

US 5,316,508 – Landucci’s ‘Water Bicycle’ with 4 pontoons and prop drive (1994)] (5/6/02)

US 5,362,264 – Parant’s pedaled SurfBike (1994) –

US 5,374,206 – Gregory’s pedaled HPB with arm power and steering enhancements]

US 5,387,140 – Cunningham’s bicycle propelled catamaran â�” with prop (1995)] (5/2/02)

US 5,405,275 – Schlanger’s bike-like propelled catamaran]

US 5,413,066 – Spencer’s pedaled inflatable catamaran]

US 5,429,064 – Cardenas’ human powered ‘jet ski’]

US 5,443,405 – Zeyger’s bicycle propelled surf board]

US 5,460,551 – Beres’ pedal powered kayak â�” prop drive (1995)]

US 5,509,831 – Gelbart’s ‘Unicycle for Operation in Water’ (1996)]

US 5,522,741 – Yun’s amphibious bicycle]

US 5,540,604 – Dayton’s HPB with articulated hulls for steering]

US 5,547,406 – White’s Suncatcher – – with prop and rudder driven by a bicycle – (1996)]

US 5,626,501 – He’s pedaled pontoon water bike]

US 5,643,020 – Harris’ prone HPB with dual pedaled propellers]

US 5,651,706 – Kasper’s inflatable pontoon Pedal Boat â�” prop drive (1997)] (5/2/02)

US 5,718,611 – Schlangen’s pedaled catamaran]

US 5,722,865 – Tatum’s canard balanced Wave Bike –

US 5,782,480 – Reuben’s ‘Wheeled amphibious vehicle’]

US 5,803,774 – White’s amphibious bicycle system]

US 5,807,148 – Siviero’s amphibious bike converting device – Shuttle-Bike9 –

US 5,845,593 – Birkestrand’s pedaled track boat]

US 6,050,864 – Perdue’s ‘Amphibious Bicycle’ â�” paddle wheel] (4/23/02)

US 6,083,065 – Hall’s pedaled paddle-wheel attachment for canoes and the like] (5/1/02)

US 6,135,835 – Lekhtman’s pedaled ‘jet-ski’ with folding prop]

US 6,165,030 – Lewis’ pedal driven outboard for canoes and the like]

US 6,210,242 – Howard’s pedaled propeller powered catamaran] (5/1/02)

US 6,309,263 – Mier-Maza’s bicycle like water vehicle]

CA 753,066 – Liard’s portable and foldable water cycle â�” pedaled] (4/22/02)

CA 2,069,605 – Chase’s device for using a bike to propel a watercraft]

CA 2,112,520 – Landucci’s pedaled HPB quad (4 pontoons)]

CH 24,624 – Enderli’s upright pedaled HPB â�” prop drive, aft rudder (1903)] (5/15/02)

CH 377,214 – Pennese’s upright pedaled catamaran â�” paddlewheel] (4/22/02)

DE 316,629 – Bettinger’s bicycle propelled catamaran â�” paddle wheel] (4/22/02)

DE 1,960,373 – Drazdal’s two section HBB with submerged pedal drive] (4/22/02)

DE 2,315,913 – Eichholz’s upright pedaled surfboard] (4/22/02)

DE 2,418,614 – Schaeffer’s recumbent pedal drive for HPBs] (4/22/02)

DE 3,329,357 – Kuehn’s hand or foot cranked HPB â�” with forward propeller steering] (4/22/02)

DE 3,407,778 – Pietraszek’s pedaled watercraft with ‘ball paddlewheel drive’] (4/22/02)

FR 902,023 – Bonneau’s recumbent pedaled catamaran] (4/22/02)

FR 1,315,814 – Allegrand’s portable recumbent pedal drive for HPBs] (4/22/02)

FR 2,544,691 – Deshors’ HP ‘jet ski’]

FR 2,689,086 – Estadella’s dual paddle wheel propelled floating delta trike â�” pedaled]

– – Unusual HPVs for Land (Patents) – –

Not Pedaled � Land

US 88,930 – White’s dicycle â�” foot stirrup propelled with hand assist (1869)] (5/12/02)

US 90,546 – Huntington’s hand cranked dicycle (1869)] (5/12/02)

US 98,092 – Neale’s velocipede (delta trike) with push/pull row lever drive (1869)] (4/16/02)

US 155,270 – Thiesen’s tandem quad â�” push/pull lever driven (1874)] (5/17/02)

US 169,774 – Bodel’s clever trike- linked treadles and reciprocating hand levers (1875)] (5/12/02)

US 222,034 – Gornall’s self-propelled 3-wheel roller skates â�” foot rocking actuated (1879)] (4/23/02)

US 243,476 – Vreeland’s hand cranked trike â�” with foot assist and shoulder steering (1881)] (5/17/02)

US 273,007 – Baker’s treadle propelled quad (1883)]

US 285,035 – Holland’s velocipede with manual up/down drive levers (1883)] (4/11/02)

US 297,388 – Hall’s self-propelled 3-wheel roller skates – weight transfer actuated (1884)] (4/23/02)

US 302,090 – Bernhard’s foot steered delta trike with dual row lever drive (1884)] (4/11/02)

US 316,146 – Hennig’s clever multiple treadle driven trike â�” for 1-3 people (1885) (5/12/02)

US 327,397 – King’s two person, rocking chair propelled quad (1885)]

US 375,755 – Kidder’s treadle driven delta trike – rack and pinion linkage (1888)] (4/15/02)

US 393,417 – Brown’s foot lever propelled FWD and rear wheel steered bike (1888)] (5/5/02)

US 397,015 – McCoy’s dual hand lever propelled quad â�” passenger seat â�” tiller steered (1889)] (5/12/02)

US 422,087 – Loser’s quad â�” hand levers and/or foot treadle propelled â�” foot steered (1890)] (5/17/02)

US 443,890 – Belyea’s clever reciprocating foot and arm propelled quad (1890)]

US 444,620 – Rouveyre’s upright delta trike with treadle drive (1891)] (5/28/02)

US 535,593 – Mann’s push/pull hand lever propelled and steered quad (1895)] (5/17/02)

US 556,802 – Boyle’s upright bicycle with linear drive (1896)] (4/23/02)

US 581,453 – Boldt’s self-propelled, weight transfer actuated roller skates (1897)] (4/23/02)

US 588,472 – Raymond’s treadle drive trike with vertical seat movement assist (1897)] (5/28/02)

US 618,580 – Paine’s hand steered delta trike â�” propelled by push/pull arm lever (1899)] (4/4/02)

US 719,595 – Huss’ upright bicycle with linear drive (1903)] (4/23/02)

US 726,001 – Smith’s ‘Hand Actuated’ quad – pump type lever propels and steers (1903)] (5/15/02)

US 833,100 – Wells’ ‘Pedemobile’ â�” lean steered roller skates with brakes (1906)] (4/23/02)

US 873,889 – Palmer’s weight transfer propelled roller skates (1907))] (4/23/02)

US 891,872 – Smith’s multi speed quad â�” reciprocating hand levers â�” foot steered (1908)] (5/17/02)

US 941,121 – Worthington’s push/pull hand lever propelled and steered quad (1909)] (5/15/02)

US 942,333 – Lennox’s self-propelled roller skates – weight transfer actuated (1909)] (4/23/02)

US 1,008,187 – Nannenhorn’s lean-steered roller skates (1911)] (4/23/02)

US 1,222,613 – Felicetti’s thrust lever propelled amphibious vehicle (1917)]

US 1,234,614 – Bordner’s ‘Child’s Wagon’ – pump type lever propels and steers (1917)] (5/15/02)

US 1,273,079 – Matson’s unique swinging-chair propelled quad (1918)] (4/23/02)

US 1,292,445 – Drexler and Hollo’s 4 person quad â�” multiple push/pull levers, steering wheel (1919)] (5/12/02)

US 1,309,855 – Johnson’ s arm rowed scooter (1919)] (5/12/02)

US 1,334,609 – Guindon’s roller skates â�” propelled by vertical foot motions (1920)] (4/23/02)

US 1,359,957 – Bolen and McKee’s child’s stand-up trike – lift handle to propel (1920)] (5/12/02)

US 1,368,696 – Butterfield’s ‘Irish Mail’ propelled by dual reciprocating arm levers (1921)] (4/2/02)

US 1,387,281 – McCarthy’s hand steered children’s trike – propelled by push/pull lever (1921)] (4/4/02)

US 1,418,817 – Mack’s push/pull lever propelled quad â�” foot steered (1922)] (5/12/02)

US 1,443,904 – Parson’s reciprocating lever propelled quad (1923)]

US 1,449,643 – Wenderhold’s clever ‘hobbyhorse’ driven by vertical seat movements (1923)]

US 1,464,414 – Finch’s FWD trike for children – propelled by push/pull arm lever (1923)] (4/4/02)

US 1,500,809 – Giufri’s quad with independent linear foot drives (1924)]

US 1,503,878 – Brady’s dual hand lever propelled trike â�” foot steered (1924)] (5/12/02)

US 1,568,412 – Parkes’ scooter with â��steering wheel’ and seat (1926)] (5/12/02)

US 1,585,258 – Moore’s ‘Pole Monocycle’ (sort of a Segway look-alike from 1926)]

US 1,604,888 – Dews’ ‘Toy Vehicle’ (bike) with semi linear drive (1926)] (5/15/02)

US 1,617,357 – Walter’s 3 wheel scooter with oscillating foot plate drive (1927)] (4/23/02)

US 1,637,266 – Maxson’s child’s scooter with one-foot treadle drive (1927)] (4/23/02)

US 1,658,068 – White’s folding scooter with seat (1928)] (5/12/02)

US 1,688,024 – Scholer’s treadle driven scooter (1927)]

US 1,696,927 – Snyder’s delta trike with treadmill drive (1929)] (4/23/02)

US 1,723,553 – Lundahl’s â��Hand Car’ type quad â�” pump like lever propels and steers (1929)] (5/15/02)

US 1,801,526 – Neuman’s arm rowed scooter (1930)] (5/12/02)

US 2,002,046 – Scholtes’ scooter with one-foot linear drive] (4/23/02)

US 2,023,889 – Kramps’ upright bicycle with reciprocating drive] (4/23/02)

US 2,025,446 – Frantz’s treadle drive system for bicycles] (4/2/02)

US 2,114,648 – Bevier’s FWD stand up vehicle â�” driven by up/down handle bar (1938)] (5/15/02)

US 2,436,619 – Swindell’s hand cranked ‘Armcycle’ â�” with 5 wheels and dual drives (1948)] (5/12/02)

US 2,449,871 – Bohler’s self propelled roller skates â�” with 3 wheels and brakes] (4/23/02)

US 2,536,569 – Purkey’s self-propelled roller skates â�” operated by weight transfer] (4/23/02)

US 2,707,112 – Ludwigson’s treadle operated 3-wheel scooter] (4/23/02)

US 2,831,703 – Shrimpton’s stand up bike with ‘swinging pedal’ drive]

US 2,861,814 – Rebhun’s hand or foot propelled scooter â�” rear wheel drive (1958)] (5/12/02)

US 2,892,638 – Stadden’s ‘Play Hand Car ‘ – pump type lever propels and steers (1959)] (5/15/02)

US 3,039,790 – Trott’s treadle driven bicycle]

US 3,052,486 – Malmquist’s hand cranked 3 wheeled â��boat’ â�” independent drives (1962)] (5/12/02)

US 3,164,391 – O’Neal’s stand-up quad with circular platform and step-on drive pedals] (4/23/02)\

US 3,336,047 – Burgess’ stand-up â��hand car’ for children â�” up/down hand lever (1967)] (5/15/02)

US 3,450,416 – Mulder’s children’s trike â�” 2 hand turned wheels and 1 swivel wheel (1969)] (5/12/02)

US 3,690,697 – Bohanski’s trike with push/pull hand lever drive and swivel seat steering (1972)] (5/12/02)

US 3,701,543 – Clark’s clever FWD for bikes â�” handle bar operated (1972)] (5/15/02)

US 3,759,543 – Clark’s bicycle with independent treadle drives and a variable speed feature] (4/2/02)

US 3,834,733 – Harris’ treadle powered bike with adjustable drive ratio] (4/2/02)

US 3,843,157 – Wyman’s trike propelled by pulling band that surrounds rider (1974)]

US 3,848,891 – Vittori’s hand cranked delta trike (1974)]

US 3,884,501 – Elias’ children’s trike with semi-linear foot drive (1975)] (4/2/02)

US 3,889,974 – Kallander’s treadle drive for bikes (1975)]

US 3,891,235 – Shelly’s linear drive for upright bikes] (4/23/02)

US 3,913,945 – Clark’s ‘Bicycle with Variable Speed Lever Action Drive’ (1975)]

US 3,977,094 – Rivera’s self-propelled ‘Pogo Shoes’ (1976)] (4/11/02)

US 3,979,135 – Meritzis’ trike propelled by reciprocating sliding seat motions]

US 3,992,029 – Washizawa’s scooter driven by single foot treadle (1976)] (5/12/02)

US 3,998,469 – Ruys’ treadle drive for bikes]

US 4,019,230 – Pollard’s bicycle with drive capable of reciprocating or rotary motion] (4/23/02)

US 4,066,273 – Loir’s children’s ‘Toy Car’ â�” 2 hand turned wheels and 1 swivel wheel (1978)] (5/12/02)

US 4,077,647 – Nagayama’s circular children’s trike â�” 2 hand turned wheels and swivel wheel (1978)] (5/12/02)

US 4,077,648 – Seul’s treadle driven bicycle (1978)] (5/15/02)

US 4,109,927 – Harper’s hand cranked and controlled delta trike (1978)]

US 4,161,328 – Efros’ upright bicycle with linear drive] (4/23/02)

US 4,169,609 – Zampedro’s linear drive arrangement for upright bicycles] (4/23/02)

US 4,189,166 – Lindsey’s FWD scooter â�” operated by pull/pull handle bar (1980)] (5/12/02)

US 4,227,712 – Dick’s variable speed treadle drive – for upright bicycles] (4/23/02)

US 4,243,218 – DeSousa’s hopping vehicle (sort of a multi-track pogo stick) (1981)]

US 4,319,760 – Romano’s skateboard – propelled by manually pulling drive chain] (4/23/02)

US 4,334,695 – Ashby’s ‘Walking Buggy’ â�” a treadmill propelled delta trike] (4/23/02)

US 4,379,566 – Titcomb’s reciprocating pedal cycle]

US 4,394,029 – Holmgren’s small (skate like) scooter (1983)] (5/12/02)

US 4,411,442 – Rill’s foot powered skateboard vehicle]

US 4,421,334 – Efros’ treadle driven upright bicycle] (4/23/02)

US 4,445,698 – Stillwell’s stepping powered roller skates]

US 4,458,895 – Turcotte’s human powered hollow sphere for land or water]

US 4,506,901 – Tosti’s hand cranked ‘Child’s Chariot’ (1985)] (5/12/02)

US 4,561,668 – Klopfenstein’s combined seat/treadle drive]

US 4,592,563 – Dean’s multi track HPV with movable traction wheel and reciprocating drive]

US 4,602,801 – Vincent’s self propelled roller skates – with brakes] (4/23/02)

US 4,616,840 – Green’s independent row lever drive for bicycles (1986)] (5/15/02)

US 4,660,299 – Omilusik’s ‘Spring Boots’ â�” each with 4 coil springs (1987)] (5/28/02)

US 4,664,400 – Date’s unusual see-saw rowing cycle]

US 4,666,173 – Graham’s treadle powered bicycle] (4/2/02)

US 4,705,284 – Stout’s reciprocating arm powered tadpole trike (1987)]

US 4,717,164 – Levavi’s enclosed tiltable tandem with reciprocating drives]

US 4,798,395 – Shaffer’s trike propelled and steered by reciprocating land levers (1989)] (4/15/02)

US 4,807,896 – Philippi’s arm-propelled skateboard (1989)]

US 4,828,284 – Sandgren’s Step’n Go treadle drive –

US 4,846,488 – Szadkowski’s ‘spring-drive’ (treadle) scooter (1989)]

US 4,875,699 – Levavi’s reciprocated drive tandem race vehicle]

US 4,912,859 – Ritts’ ‘Spring Shoes’ for enhanced jumping]

US 5,016,869 – Dick’s Spring Walker –

US 5,022,671 – Jones’ hand cranked tadpole trike]

US 5,039,121 – Donovan’s skating powered trike]

US 5,039,122 – Deutch and Miralles’ reciprocating hand lever front wheel drive for bikes (1991)] (5/15/02)

US 5,163,696 – Pesco’s treadle powered scooter]

US 5,242,181 – Fales’ reciprocating drive recumbent]

US 5,242,182 – Bezerra’s bicycle with treadle drive] (4/23/02)

US 5,257,553 – Cheng’s pneumatic FWD system operable by up/down handle bar movement] (4/15/02)

US 5,282,640 – Lindsey’s push/pull handle bar FWD for scooters and bikes (1994)] (5/12/02)

US 5,290,054 – Po’s linear drive recumbent bike (1994)]

US 5,308,097 – Bono’s reciprocating arm powered FW drive device (1994)]

US 5,328,195 – Sommer and Quintana’s bicycle with ‘Arm Assisted Drive’ (1994)] (5/12/02)

US 5,354,084 – Lofgren’s hand powered articulated trike – Freedom Ryder – (1994)]

US 5,368,321 – Berman’s stand-up scooter with treadle drive (1994)] (4/23/02)

US 5,383,676 – Valentino’s FWD hand cranked delta trike] (4/15/02)

US 5,465,989 – Grove’s arm powered bicycle for the disabled]

US 5,490,686 – Clouse’s rocking handle powered and steered hand car â�” with 6 wheels] (4/16/02)

US 5,492,345 – Kruczek’s self-propelled Roller Skate.]

US 5,496,051 – Farmos’ upright bicycle with linear drive] (4/23/02)

US 5,542,689 – Chalfant’s rocking handle bar enabled FWD for bicycles] (4/15/02)

US 5,690,345 – Kiser’s rectilinear bicycle drive]

US 5,690,346 – Keskitalo’s multi-mode linear drive vehicle]

US 5,732,963 – White’s reciprocated drive, prone bike]

US 5,762,350 – Jolly’s delta trike with push/pull lever drive and hand steering] (4/15/02)

US 5,769,441 – Namngani’s unusual dicycle with adjustable wheel positions (1998))] (5/12/02)

US 5,775,708 – Heath’s treadle and reciprocating arm lever powered cycle – twist grip steering] (4/15/02)

US 5,779,247 – Anselmo’s mono wheel roller skates (1998)] (6/20/02)

US 5,826,897 – Beard’s flywheel driven trike â�” powered by dual hand rowing levers] (4/23/02)

US 5,839,737 – Kruczek’s HP skateboard]

US 5,853,184 – Lofgren’s FWD handcycle – delta trike (1998)] (4/15/02)

US 5,979,922 – Becker’s linear drive recumbent]

US 5,980,432 – Ahman’s hopping vehicle (1999)]

US 5,997,020 – Borg’s reciprocating arm drive cycle]

US 6,000,707 – Miller’s linear drive recumbent bike]

US 6,007,083 – Currie’s reciprocating FWD cycle]

US 6,070,894 – Augspurger’s arm cranked trike (2000)]

US 6,079,724 – Lin’s stand-up trike with step-on pedals, rack and pinion drive (2000)] (5/12/02)

US 6,179,307 – Mao’s arm rowed scooter/skateboard (2001)] (5/12/02)

US 6,193,253 – Barnett’s hand cranked trike with twist grip steering]

US 6,206,388 – Oubetor’s scooter with steered front wheels (2001)]

US 6,220,612 – Beleski’s non-pedaled, articulatedTrikke – ,(2)] –

US 6,241,269 – Fan’s foot drive mechanism for scooters (2001)] (5/12/02)

US 6,306,065 – Liang’s telescoping wheel base propelled quad]

US 6,336,646 – Bernardini’s LWB recumbent with swinging foot lever drive]

US 6,349,956 – Fujiwara and Maniya’s treadle driven upright bike]

US 6,352,494 – McAlonan’s bungee powered pogo stick] (3/22/02)

US 6,371,891 – Speas’ swing pedal powered bike with interesting shifting system (2002)]

US 6,378,882 – Devine’s linear drive folding recumbent â�” tadpole trike (2002)] (5/9/02)

US 6,382,640 – Killian’s laterally aligned mono-wheel roller skates (2002)] (6/20/02)

US 6,398,244 – Chuch’s sea-saw type treadle powered scooter – Surfing Scooter – (?) (2002)] (5/12/02)

US 6,402,173 – Chiu’s treadle powered stand-up trike (2002)] (6/20/02)

US 6,412,802 – Kugel’s vertically aligned linear bike drive (2002)] (7/11/02)

CA 2,207,786 – Currie’s linear driven bicycle]

DE 3,737,294 – Mueller’s reciprocating lever (hands and feet) driven bicycle]

EP 1,182,124 – Ming and Hung’s rocking-treadle driven scooter]

NL 8,200,455 – Henricus’ stand-up quad with bi-directional row lever drive]

GB 2,113,627 – Harding’s linear drive recumbent]

GB 2,279,918 – Entwistle’s linear drive recumbent]

GB 2,328,914 – Hon’s bike driven by pedals or vertical seat movements]

JP 51,112,043 – Kikuchi’s shaft drive delta trike with linear hand and foot drives (in Japanese)]

JP 56,067,682 – Mizutani’s prone delta trike with ‘expanding wheelbase’ drive (in Japanese)]

Pedaled � Land

US 86,235 – Laubach’s FWD, center steered bike (1869)]

US 212,492 – Otto’s pedaled dicycle (1879)] (5/12/02)

US 286,593 – Deputy’s interesting pedaled dicycle (1883)] (5/12/02)

US 352,885 – another of Otto’s pedaled dicycles (1886)] (5/12/02)

US 558,069 – Heaton’s convertible upright bike â�” single to tandem (1896)] (5/9/02)

US 575,692 – Buell’s convertible bike â�” single to tandem (1897)] (5/9/02)

US 601,107 – Simpier’s pedaled dicycle (1898)] (5/12/02)

US 609,498 – Campbell’s interesting upright bike with rack and pinion drive (1898)] (4/15/02)

US 641,426 – Allen’s sociable tandem trike â�” dual pedal drives (1900)] (5/12/02)

US 690,733 – Jarvis’ LWB recumbent bicycle â�” with indirect steering (1902)] (4/4/02)

US 846,033 – Kidney’s prone bicycle (1907)]

US 1,453,046 – Gabke’s ‘Toy Vehicle’ (quad) â�” pedaled with steering wheel (1923)] (5/15/02)

US 1,511,147 – Towers’ ‘Side Wheel Attachment’ for bikes (1924)] (4/21/02)

US 1,610,016 – Kuchta’s folding upright bicycle â�” small wheels (1926)] (5/1/02)

US 1,792,045 – Sieken’s one-foot pedaled scooter (1931)]

US 2,147,732 – Boynton’s LWB semi-recumbent bike â�” with steering wheel (1939)] (5/9/02)

US 2,458,127 – Ahrens’ convertible children’s bike to delta trike (1949)] (5/9/02)

US 2,482,472 – Fried’s MWB recumbent] (4/28/02)

US 3,015,498 – Tanaka’s folding upright bicycle (1962)] (7/5/02)

US 3,143,362 – Willsea’s pedaled dicycle (1964)] (5/12/02)

US 3,183,020 – Hawver’s pedaled dicycle (1964)] (5/12/02)

US 3,336,817 – Madden’s steering wheel for bicycles] (4/28/02)

US 3,429,584 – Hendricks’ recumbent tadpole trike (1969)] (5/9/02)

US 3,533,305 – Hill’s bike with ‘variable steering wheel’] (4/28/02)

US 3,561,778 – LaBrie’s tiltable tadpole trike (1971)

US 3,623,749 – Jensen’s ‘portable’ small wheel upright bicycle (1971)] (5/9/02)

US 3,653,679 – Howard’s ‘wheelie’ attachment for upright bicycles] (4/21/02)

US 3,695,375 – Splawinski’s pedaled dicycle with canted semi-spherical wheels (1972)] (5/12/02)

US 3,664,684 – Long’s sociable (tandem) delta trike]

US 3,753,577 – Robinson’s ‘sporting’ delta trike recumbent â�” with above seat steering (1973)] (5/9/02)

US 3,801,130 – Belden’s Swing Bike with pivoting rear wheel –

US 3,827,310 – Gates’ pedal car – sociable (tandem) PPV – delta trike or quad (1974) – (4/21/02)

US 3,909,043 – Black’s FWD, front wheel steered tadpole trike]

US 3,913,929 – Matsuura’s low rider tadpole trike MASA Slingshot (?) (1975) –

US 3,958,814 – Smith’s tiltable tadpole trike]

US 4,037,854 – Large’s ‘Flywheel Aided Bicycle’ (1977)] (5/15/02)

US 4,067,589 – Hon’s foldable small wheel bicycle (1978)] (5/9/02)

US 4,102,542 – Pirre’s monocycle trike with rider inside a large front wheel]

US 4,186,935 – Rudwick’s tadpole trike with anti-sway bar]

US 4,198,072 – Hopkin’s variable steering geometry FWD trike]

US 4,248,448 – Dmitrowsky’s prone position bike (1981)]

US 4,272,095 – Ptaszek’s interesting children’s trike with variable axis castered rear wheels (1981)] (5/12/02)

US 4,283,070 – Forrestall and Wilson’s Avatar – LWB recumbent with under seat steering – (1981)] (5/9/02)

US 4,303,256 – Mortensen’s LWB recumbent with suspension and above seat steering (1981)] (5/9/02)

US 4,324,413 – Bensette’s unicycle with ‘water balance’] (4/15/02)

US 4,335,899 – Hiscock’s pedaled ‘Toy Vehicle’ with dual axis rear wheels (1982)] (5/15/02)

US 4,373,740 – Hendrix’s delta recumbent trike with provisions for moving in reverse (1983)]

US 4,395,237 – Watanabe’s amphibious bicycle]

US 4,408,776 – Randolph’s FWD, laterally movable rear wheel steered tadpole trike]

US 4,410,198 – Ferdandes’ faired racing trike Vector –

US 4,411,443 – Pollard’s streamlined, prone position bike]

US 4,432,561 – Feikema and Bakker’s lean steer Banana Peel trike (1984) –

US 4,451,064 – Perkin’s FWD, rear wheel steered delta trike (1984)]

US 4,455,816 – Porath’s pedaled ‘Tricycle Lawn Mower’]

US 4,456,277 – Carpenter’s FWD tadpole trike – Cyclodyne (1984) –

US 4,460,191 – Ishibashi’s folding upright bicycle (1984)] (5/9/02)

US 4,469,343 – Weatherford’s FWD, RWD multi speed delta trike with pedals at FW hub (1984)]

US 4,480,848 – Georgiev ’s semi-recumbent bicycle (1984)] (5/9/02)

US 4,497,502 – Forbes’ FWD, rear wheel steered delta trike (1985)]

US 4,502,705 – Weaver’s tandem bike with recumbent captain and upright stoker (1985)]

US 4,526,392 – Berkstresser’s rear wheel steered leaning delta trike Vacuum Velocipede – (1985)]

US 4,541,501 – Kawasaki’s articulated trike]

US 4,548,421 – Wiener’s recumbent tadpole trike â�” above seat steering (1985)] (5/9/02)

US 4,572,535 – Stewart and Lofgren’s FWD, lean steered delta trike – Brike (1986) –

US 4,618,160 – McElfresh’s recumbent with enclosed drive train and adjustable seat position]

US 4,634,137 – Cocksedge’s tiltable recumbent delta trike]

US 4,647,059 – Shan Hai’s bicycle that can be converted to a unicycle (1987)] (5/9/02)

US 4,647,060 – Tomkinson’s prone position bicycle] (4/23/02)

US 4,657,270 – Allen’s convertible children’s trike â�” high/low seating or bicycle (1987)] (5/9/02)

US 4,659,098 – Jacobson’s SWB semi-recumbent bike (1987)] (5/9/02)

US 4,674,762 – Nelson’s SWB recumbent quad (1987)]

US 4,740,004 – McMullen’s tiltable tadpole (upright) trike]

US 4,767,130 – Fu-Chao’s clever ‘Foldable Pedicab’ (1988)] (5/9/02)

US 4,773,663 – Sawyer’s FW steered recumbent bike with fixed crank axis at FW hub (1988)]

US 4,786,069 – Tang’s simple dicycle (2 wheel unicycle) â�” without a seat (1988)] (4/23/02)

US 4,786,070 – Adee’s three section folding CLWB recumbent bicycle (1988)]

US 4,789,173 – Lofgren and Stewart’s FWD, center steered (articulated) delta trike (1988)]

US 4,799,704 – Colarusso’s FWD, rear wheel steered delta trike (1989)] (5/9/02)

US 4,826,190 – Hartmann’s delta trike with enclosed drive chain and rear differential (1989)]

US 4,878,684 – Lemle’s LWB recumbent with fore and aft adjustable seat position (1989)] (5/12/02)

US 4,895,385 – Becoat’s kit to convert a bike to 2 wheel drive â�” flexible drive cable (1990)] (5/15/02)

US 4,903,857 – Klopfenstein’s leaning trike (1990)]

US 4,925,202 – Barker’s FWD, rear wheel steered tadpole trike]

US 4,986,556 – Hartmann’s semi-prone bicycle with chainless drive] (4/23/02)

US 4,993,733 – Eilers’ low CG, leaning trike (1991)]

US 4,995,626 – Montague’s folding tandemTriFrame –

US 5,002,295 – Lin’s unicycle with an eccentric wheel] (4/15/02)

US 5,004,258 – another Becoat’s kit to convert a bike to 2 wheel drive â�” flexible drive cable (1991)] (5/15/02)

US 5,069,469 – Rosengrant’s tilt steered tadpole trike(1991)]

US 5,145,196 – Langkamp’s ‘collapsible’ tadpole trike (1992)] (5/9/02)

US 5,178,088 – Howard’s pedaled amphibious vehicle]

US 5,201,538 – Mayn’s ‘Ergonomic Cycle'(bike or delta trike) with adjustable seat and handle bar –

US 5,224,725 – Eriston’s two wheel drive bicycle]

US 5,240,267 – Owsen’s FW leaning trike]

US 5,261,686 – Buckler’s ‘Semi-Recumbent’ MWB bicycle (1993)] (4/28/02)

US 5,301,969 – Bynoe’s energy storing jumping bike]

US 5,326,121 – Fisher’s side-by-side off road quad]

US 5,380,025 – Thorpe’s SWB recumbent – in motion position adjustment – Road Runner (1995)] (4/28/02)

US 5,419,574 – Krumm’s adjustable frame recumbent bike (1995)]

US 5,454,579 – Chen’s unicycle with spring loaded training wheels (sort of) (1995)]

US 5,484,152 – Nunes’ differential braking steered tadpole trike]

US 5,501,478 – Doan’s FWD, rear wheel steered delta trike]

US 5,509,678 – Ullman’s CLWB recumbent – BikeE (1996) – (5/9/02)

US 5,542,689 – Chalfant’s front wheel drive system for bikes]

US 5,544,906 – Clapper’s cleverly constructed Landstrider trike –

US 5,568,935 – Mason’s FWD lean steer Raven trike –

US 5,607,171 – Labranche’s LWB recumbent with variable ratio steering]

US 5,678,835 – Sung’s tilting delta trike]

US 5,762,351 – SooHoo’s leaning tadpole Aileron trike –

US 5,772,227 – Michael’s folding bike with rear wheel suspension]

US 5,782,480 – Reuben’s ‘Wheeled amphibious vehicle’]

US 5,803,774 – White’s amphibious bicycle system]

US 5,833,257 – Kohlheb’s cable driven String Bike –

US 5,887,882 – Atchison’s prone bicycle]

US 5,938,224 – Douglas’ hydraulic Power Curve bike –

US 5,951,034 – Mayo’s upright to semi recumbent bike conversion kit (1999)] (5/9/02)

US 6,012,732 – Potter’s pedal & row tandem Land Rower –

US 6,032,969 – Kurgan’s crank or treadle propelled exercise trike]

US 6,042,134 – Rector’s forkless steering for low racers]

US 6,062,581 – Stites’ FWD leaning trike Chameleon –

US 6,068,278 – Kock’s quad made from two recumbent bikes]

US 6,095,540 – Kim’s chainless FWD bicycle Kimbike –

US 6,161,855 – Christini’s two wheel drive bicycle (2000)]

US 6,203,043 – Lehman’s FWD quad with suspension (2001)]

US 6,371,501 – Jenkins’ innovative bike with indirect drive, regenerative braking/power assist (2002)] (4/29/02)

US 6,402,174 – Maurer’s interesting tilting trike â�” common lever to steer and adjust lean (2002)] (6/20/02)

US 6,406,047 – Sawyer’s ‘center steered’ two wheel drive upright bike (2002)] (7/5/02)

FR 806,333 – Biguet’s SWB recumbent with adjustable boom and mid drive (1936)] (5/8/02)

GB 453,687 – Raymond’s SWB recumbent bicycle (1936)] (5/8/02)

GB 496,086 – Kelley’s LWB recumbent bike with mid drive and linked steering (1938)] (5/8/02)

WO 99/25602 – Jessen’s tilt stabilized tadpole trike]

Pedaled with Arm Assist � Land

US 86,856 – Monroe’s FWD bike with suspension, arm rower assist and passenger seat (1869)] (4/4/02)

US 565,556 – Murray’s bike with FWD assist from vertically reciprocating handlebars (1896)] (4/2/02)

US 581,985 – Fritz’s pedaled bike with rocking handle bar assist (1897)] (4/15/02)

US 519,384 – Gatling’s interesting bicycle with drive assist from dual pull handles (1894)] (4/23/02)

US 2,225,230 – Ott’s FWD children’s trike with arm ‘rowing’ assist (1940)] (4/4/02)

US 2,232,120 – Letsch’s pedaled bike with row lever assist]

US 2,884,259 – Snodgrass’ pedaled tadpole trike with hand lever assist]

US 3,910,599 – Thomas’ hand and foot cranked FWD bicycle (1975)] (4/2/02)

US 4,147,370 – Lindsey’s bicycle with reciprocating handle bar FWD assist (1979)] (4/2/02)

US 4,152,005 – Vanore’s arm and leg cranked delta trike (1979)]

US 4,270,766 – Thomas’ arm and leg powered cycle]

US 4,417,742 – Intengan’s unusual hand and foot cranked bicycle (1983)] (4/15/02)

US 4,541,647 – Braun’s recumbent with reciprocating arm assist levers (1985)]

US 4,708,356 – Levavi’s tandem arm and leg powered streamliner]

US 4,733,880 – Wilhelm’s push/pull handle bar â�” linked to assist bicycle pedals (1988)] (5/15/02)

US 4,773,662 – Philips’ Ultrabike foot pedaled with FWD hand crank assist (1988) –

US 4,838,568 – Arroyo’s prone position bike with linear hand drive assist (1989)] (5/12/02)

US 4,858,942 – Rodriguez’s pedal bike with FWD hand cranks (1989)] (4/15/02)

US 5,002,298 – Motto’s hand lever assist for pedaling bikes (1991)] (4/15/02)

US 5,082,302 – Nacar’s ‘Hand Crank Bicycle Drive’ â�” pedal assist – rear wheel (1992)] (5/15/02)

US 5,372,374 – Hudson’s one hand lever for bicycle pedaling assist and exercise (1994)] (4/15/02)

US 5,511,810 – Tong’s add-on pedal assisting hand levers for bicycles (1996)] (4/15/02)

US 5,700,228 – James’ foot and hand cranked ‘Gyrocycle’ – quad] (4/15/02)

US 5,775,708 – Heath’s pedal and row assist cycle]

US 5,785,336 – Jang’s pivoting handle bar assist for bicycles] (4/15/02)

US 5,816,598 – Dodakian’s FWD hand crank device for bicycles] (4/15/02)

US 6,032,970 – Porter’s bike with pedals and reciprocating arm levers]

US 6,099,009 – Schroeder’s ‘two wheel drive bicycle’ â�” arm powered front wheel ]

US 6,105,985 – Cosgrave’s arm (reciprocate) and leg (pedal) powered bicycle]

US 6,264,224 – Phillip’s FWD hand crank for bikes (2001)]

GB 2,151,562 – Zarco’s combined pedal and row cycle (1985)]

JP 60,071,385 – Furanshisu’s hand and foot propelled bike (in Japanese)]

WO 00/56595 – Dahlem’s bike with laterally rocking handle-bar assist]

name=WheelchairPat>Wheelchairs .

US 287,789 – Arbogast’s wheelchair with independent hand cranked drives (1883)] (5/12/02)

US 2,946,602 – Lee’s wheelchair â�” propelled by pulling arm rests towards user (1960)] (5/17/02)

US 3,301,574 – Good’s wheelchair â�” propelled by pushing hand levers away from user (1967)] (5/17/02)

US 3,666,292 – Bartos’ foldable wheelchair â�” propelled by reciprocating hand levers (1972)] (5/9/02)

US 4,274,651 – Dumond’s wheelchair â�” propelled by dual independent hand cranks (1981)] (5/15/02)

US 4,453,729 – Lucken’s wheelchair – propelled by dual reciprocating hand levers (1984)] (5/12/02)

US 4,455,029 – Taylor’s wheelchair with means for surmounting obstacles]

US 4,460,190 – Spiess’ hand propelled and steered tadpole trike wheelchair â�” dual levers (1984)] (5/9/02)

US 4,560,181 – Herron’s wheelchair propelled by dual pivoting hand levers]

US 4,758,013 – Agrillo’s hand cranked wheelchair drive (1988)] (5/12/02)

US 5,028,064 – Johnson’s rear wheel steered ‘Racing Wheelchair’ (1991)] (5/12/02)

US 5,037,120 – Parisi’s hand cranked wheelchair – independent drives (1991)] (5/12/02)

US 5,232,236 – Korpi’s ‘Leveraged Wheelchair Propeller’ with brakes (1993)] (5/15/02)

US 5,242,179 – Beddome’s wheelchair attachment â�” linked pedal and hand lever drives (1993)] (5/15/02)

US 5,322,312 – Cammack’s foldable wheelchair â�” propelled by dual hand levers (1994)] (5/15/02)

US 5,480,172 – James’ ‘Three Wheeled Competition Wheelchair’ (1996)] (5/12/02)

US 5,492,349 – Ferez’s arm rowed and steered wheelchair type quad] (4/16/02)

US 5,865,455 – Taylor’s wheelchair with independent push lever drives (1999)] (5/12/02)

– – HP Drive Systems (Patents) – –

US 566,838 – Boyle’s linear drive system for upright bikes (1896)] (4/23/02)

US 588,698 – Eickershoff’s interesting linear drive (vertical) with braking and drive shaft (1897)] (5/17/02)

US 2,541,872 – Hendricks’ ‘Two Speed Direct Transmission’ for pedaling bikes etc. (1951)] (5/15/02)

US 3,834,721 – Gobby’s twin chain drive for trikes]

US 3,843,145 – Templeton’s differential drive with coaster brakes]

US 4,303,255 – Thomas’ multi-speed arm and legs powered FWD]

US 4,447,068 – Brook’s constant torque bicycle transmission]

US 4,548,420 – Patroni’s linear arm drive system (1985)]

US 4,953,882 – Craig’s linear drive apparatus for bicycles] (4/23/02)

US 5,050,864 – Pertramer’s bi-directional row lever drive]

US 5,054,960 – Farmo’s linear drive system]

US 5,121,654 – Fasce’s treadle drive mechanism for bicycles] (4/23/02)

US 5,125,677 – Ogilvie’s variable speed, linear drive system]

US 5,156,412 – Meguerditchian’s vertically oriented linear drive for bikes] (4/23/02)

US 5,236,211 – another Meguerditchian’s vertically oriented linear drive system] (4/23/02)

US 5,405,157 – Bezerra’s treadle drive system]

US 5,419,572 – Stiller and Walton’s reciprocating bicycle drive] (3/30/02)

US 5,431,614 – Jeranson’s FWD unit for mounting on bikes] (4/16/02)

US 5,820,151 – Cheng’s front wheel drive mechanism for bicycles] (4/16/02)

US 5,833,257 – Kohlheb’s cable driven String Bike –

US 5,895,065 – Khomo’s ‘walking-motion’ drive system]

US 5,908,199 – Rigato’s FWD hand crank system for bicycles] (4/15/02)

US 5,915,710 – Miller’s prone reciprocating drive system]

US 5,938,224 – Douglas’ hydraulicPower Curve bike –

US 5,979,922 – Becker’s linear drive system]

US 6,000,707 – Miller’s linear drive system]

US 6,146,297 – Kimura’s automatic bicycle transmission]

US 6,155,584 – Dallet’s linear arm and leg drive system (2000)]

US 6,209,900 – Yoshizawa’s moving fulcrum treadle drive]

US 6,237,928 – Islas’ linear drive system]

US 6,258,005 – Rohloff’s multispeed gear shifting system]

US 6,382,043 – Lin’s transmission for reciprocating foot pedal drive (2002)] (5/17/02)

US 6,383,108 – Yoo’s bottom bracket transmission for bi-directional pedaling (2002)] (5/17/02)

CA 2,305,550 – Miller’s linear drive system for cycles]

DE 2,426,011 – Herbst’s sliding seat rowing system]

DE 3,346,139 – Backer’s semi-linear pedal drive system]

DE 3,707,669 – Geith’s pantograph-to-crank, semi linear drive]

DE 3,940,311 – Selter’s ‘punt pole’ drive system (1990)]

FR 2,657,324 – Drapeau’s sliding seat rowing system]

GB 1,413,844 – Wilde’s reciprocating lever drive system]

GB 2,272,748 – Storr’s hydraulic bike transmission]

WO 00/12378 – Thijs’ Snek transmission for his Rowingbike –

WO 01/36259 – Heo Hyan’s bi-directional pedaling system]

– – Flying HPVs (Patents) – –

US 1,036,033 – Twining’S arm (push-ups) powered flapping winged ‘Airship’ (1912)] (5/28/02)

US 1,450,480 – Buck’s ‘Mechanical Bird’ – pedaled ornithopter (1923)] (5/28/02)

US 1,486,991 – Silvenius’ flying bicycle with flapping wings (1924)]

US 1,505,376 – Close’s tandem pedaled blimp (1924)] (5/28/02)

US 1,548,676 – Gonzalez’s pedaled ornithopter/bike combination (1925)] (5/28/02)

US 1,563,571 – Huffman’s propeller assisted ‘Jumping Balloon’ (1925)]

US 1,568,095 – Silver’s ‘Cycle Plane’ â�” bike with forward canard and pusher prop (1926)] (5/28/02)

US 1,582,482 – Miraula’s portable HP helicopter (1926)]

US 1,736,541 – Leka’s pedaled fixed wing ‘aeroplane’ â�” dual counter rotating props (1929)] (5/28/02)

US 1,777,941 – Szakacs’ ‘Unicycle Glider’ (1926)]

US 1,813,468 – Snyer’s prone HP aircraft (1931)]

US 2,611,558 – Mackiewicz’s lighter than air assisted ornithopter]

US 2,704,192 – Paul’s combination balloon and HP helicopter]

US 3,467,375 – Bush’s propeller assisted pogo stick (sort of) (1969)]

US 3,750,981 – Prather’s ‘Man Powered Glider’ â�” pedaled propeller linked to unicycle (1973)] (5/28/02)

US 4,007,893 – Khachikian’s HP ‘Homocopter’]

US 4,053,122 – Gar’s prone position ornithopter â�” independent foot drive levers (1977)] (5/28/02)

US 4,061,293 – Lo’s lighter than air balloon with helicopter blades]

US 4,081,155 – Kuan’s flying wing â�” pedaled flapping vanes on trailing edge (1978)] (5/28/02)

US 4,417,707 – Leong’s human powered hang glider (1983)]

CA 2,123,346 – Zunic’s wing flapping aircraft]

DE19,509,774 – Amesbichler’s arm rowed ornithopter]

FR 1,537,211 – Ernst’s arm rowed flapping wing HPA]

FR 2,797,844 – Dellis’ rowed ornithopter powered by stand and squat motions]

name=UnderwaterPats>

– – Underwater HPVs (Patents) – –

US 1,324,961 – Grantham’s pedaled fish shaped sub with fish tail propulsion (1919)] (5/5/02)

US 3,570,436 – Le Vaseur’s ‘Submersible Bicycle’ (1971)]

US 3,943,869 – Frechette’s adjusted buoyancy propelled submarine ]

Patent Offices

On-line patent searches can be conducted at the following sites

Canadian Intellectual Property Office

Delphion Intellectual Property Network

Europe’s Patent Network

Patent Cooperation Treaty (WIPO database)

US Patent and Trademark Office

For a listing of other patent offices, see Pipers IP or Patent Law Links –

Early THYS recumbent bikes

Lees meer

Derk’s first recumbentbike 1983/1984

Second recumbent bike

There has been a second recumbent bike. Its mainframe existed of two windsurfing mast of which the tip was glued onto the rear dropouts and they came together in the cranck axle. in between the head tube was glued to hold the front fork and the chair was attached to the mast tubes.
This frame was so flexible that later on carbon studs were added to support the chair on the rear axle.
Unfortunately there are no pictures left of this prototype.

Early M5 velomobile – around 1982

1977.1Bram Moens – M5 recumbents made trikes and 3 wheeled velomobiles in his early years around 1980-1984.
After Bram helped Derk with his first two wheeled recumbent Bram also started to experiment with 2 wheeled recumbent bikes. Within a few years Bram’s recumbents performed so well that he stopped building trikes. Derk helped Bram with his fairing and carbon work; here in the old sail locker from Derk for a nice closure of the fairing.

Aerodynamic fairing for ( M5 ) recumbents

1965.1This was a very practical and fast solution, a carbon front part and a rubber/cloth sewed piece behind.

M5 full fairing 1992

1966.1With this fairing Bram Moens broke the world one hour time trial record in 1994; 77,123 Km/h

Full fairing for M5 recumbent 1997

1967.1This was a very fast fairing that unfortunately never lived up to its world record potential. Bram Moens did win the 1997 Trondheim Oslo (540 km) race in Norway with this fairing.
It resulted in the ban of recumbent bikes in this race as Bram finished two hours sooner than the professional racingbike riders.

History and backgrounds

Lees meer

History and backgroundsTechnician, athleet, pioneer. Although he sees himself primarily as a technician and a bike builder, Derk has an impressive list of athletic performances.

His creative inventivenesses is the motor behind his performances. Or, as he puts it: “if I come up with something, I want to prove it will work”.
As a result, he was one of the first windsurfers, one of the first hang gliders, one of the first recumbent cyclists and the first rowingbiker.

As a technical highlight, he designed and built the rowingbike with the patent pending Snek transmission.

This is where it stands now, but it all started early in the seventies with a career in windsurfing.

Technical innovations
An early -1977!- sign of his inventiveness was the ‘sinker’; a surfboard incapable of supporting the weight of the surfer (hydrostatic). He also invented the combination of surfboard and kite; a speed medium pur sang.

Here you’ll find a drawing of a sheet deposited at a civil law notary in january 1978(!) which summons associations with the designs of Leonardo da Vinci. He was years ahead of the windsurf scene, with the kite even decades.

In the passing he developed numerous applications for surfboards and bicycles, and even did some interior design and ergonomics.

Recumbents
The rowingbike is a recumbent propelled by a rowing movement, comparable to that of a skiff. After decades of experimenting and improvement, the rowingbike is a well thought out sports apparatus enjoyed by owners all over the world. In addition to the Thys 222 rowingbike, the lower and faster Thys 240 is introduced. The 240 was used many times during the Rowingbike Tour de France. As of 2010 The Carbon 209 model and carbon tandem are available.

In 1985 Thijs began building his first rowingbike. He felt that the typical circling movement of the conventional bike was too unilateral. He looked to the movement of a rowing-skiff for more dimensions, and thus more power and fun. It’s has been a long way from that first prototype. The invaluable experience of 110.000 km on many prototypes of the rowingbike resulted in the design of the new and exciting Thys 222 Rowingbike.
A breakthrough in developing the Thys 222, was the invention of the Snek (fusee) transmission by the brothers Bert en Derk Thijs. In 1998 a patent was requested and the Snek was applied for the first time.

He has worked extensively with Bram Moens, the designer of M5 recumbents. This resulted, amongst other things, in the co-production of two “record recumbents” which set a number of worldrecords.

Other Designs

Lees meer

Land sailing and building wooden cars was an early hobby.

The Funbike

Lees meer

An other product of Thys ID, the Funbike (1992). A compact bicycle, ideal to take with you on a holiday.

145.1

Lovebike

Lees meer

Zachte stroomlijn

Lees meer

One of the results in the co-operation with Bram Moens of M5 recumbents, also situated in Middelburg: a soft fairing with carbon front.

CD Caroussel

Lees meer

The famous bar Seventy-Seven on the market place, Middelburg , NL had this cd carrousel made by Derk. It goes up and down and goes 360 degrees around. Nice detail is the large aluminum Snek and huge springs that form the mechanism of old school blackboards.
It is funny: we have all been staring at that black board but there is practically nobody that knows what is behind it and how it works …..
It is still in function in Cafe 77.

Barstool

Lees meer

Derk didn’t only design rowingbikes. Here a barstool, designed for café “Schuttershof” in Middelburg (Derk’s comment: “They’re still comfortable”).

Het Swingboard

Lees meer

A carbon board fitted with wheels without axles. The rim spins over three ball bearings. With the calf the brakes are manipulated.
Fitted with thin low pressure tyres.
Design: Derk Thijs/ Huibert Groenendijk
Patent pending © Thys I.D.

The Swingstep around 1990

Lees meer

Prototypes.

149.1
149.3
149.4

Fishing-rod

Lees meer

Design in the extreme: a fine and ergonomic designed fishing-rod!
Design: Huibert Groenendijk.

Jeans shop interior for Peter Christ in Lange Delft, Middelburg, NL 1993

Lees meer

Maxi Cosi prototype

Lees meer

Several prototypes mad for Huibert Groenendijk; designer of the maxi Cosi child seat.

Rowbike

Lees meer

Designed by Scott Olson.
In sales numbers this is likely to be the most succesfull rowingbike

Carbon Rowingbike by Harm den Hollander

Lees meer

Harm builds and designs rowingbikes since approx. 1996.
This is a very pretty and good working machine. Harm and Derk became friends and Harm helped Derk with computerdesigns of nowadays THYS rowingbikes. In the nowadays THYS bikes you can find quite some ideas and nice details designed by Harm.

Prototype by Theo van Andel approximately 1997

Lees meer

Theo van Andel, one of the partners in velomobiel.nl (building the quest), made this interesting rowing machine.
The foot movement is very charming and keeps the bike short.

German rowingbike

Lees meer

French rowingbikes

Lees meer

The auto skiff is a very charming landrower for children that has been produced in France in the years 1920- 1930. I have found a 3 wheeled version that is now flurishing my office.
If anyone can give me more details on the manuafcturer etcetera please let me know. it might be one of the most sold land rowers…
2224.3

2224.1

Burning man 2012 rowing machine

Lees meer

This machine was used at Burning man 2012.
A real nice eye catcher!
See the video at: www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=rMXfaqP0wWk

Rowingbike by French students

Lees meer

Vogabike, Italy

Lees meer

1988.3 1988.1

French ” Aviroute” rowingbike

Lees meer

Sculltrek

Lees meer

Sculltrek also makes different types of rowingbikes that certainly have a lot of charme

French rowing bikes from Grenoble

Lees meer

French Rowing Bike From Stilic Design

Lees meer

American Land Rower

Lees meer

S racer rowing bike

Lees meer

Canadian rowing car

Lees meer

 

2010.2

De allereerste roeifiets

8 januari 1986
Lees meer

Het oermodel van de Thys Roeifiets was gemaakt van carbon

eerste_roei_6

eerste_roei_5

eerste_roei_4

eerste_roei_3

eerste_roei_2

De tweede versie

mei 1987
Lees meer

Met de ervaringen van het allereerste model werd al gauw een tweede versie ontworpen en gemaaktantiek 2

De derde versie

november 1988
Lees meer

In the beginning this carbon bike had a 24” frontwheel and ”outboard” steering with 2 windsurfing boom rods.

antiek 1

Later on a 28” front wheel was mounted and a steering bar with pivoting point just above the head set.

A sailcloth fairing made this a very fast rowingbike, it won  the Tour de Sol in Zwitserland in 1989.antiek 6

De stroomlijntent

november 1988
Lees meer

Ook hier de derde versie van de eerste serie roeifietsen. Op de achtergrond de stroomlijntent die een sterke verbetering gaf van de aerodynamica van de roeifiets. De andere afbeelding laat dezelfde stroomlijntent zien, gemonteerd op de fiets.

derde versie stroomlijn erop

Vierde roeifiets: roestvast staal

Lees meer

Deze versie was gemaakt van een rvs buis die ergens uit de sloop van een melkinstallatie kwam. Het was een ronde buis, ik meen diameter 45 mm met een wanddikte van slechts 1 mm. Als boegspriet was een vierkant RvS profiel genomen 40 x 40 x 1,5 mm. Wel lekker gemakkelijk dat je de kogellagers van de voetenslee meteen over de buis kunt laten lopen. Na 5000 gereden kilometers brak de hoofdbuis zeer onaangekondigd door. Duidelijk te zwak dus. Hierna is de hoofdbuis met een zaling versterkt en na nog een tijdje trouwe dienst is hij verkocht aan Olympisch windsurfer Bart Verschoor. Ik heb er helaas geen foto’s van.

THYS 220 prototype in staal

Lees meer

Wielen werden eind jaren tachtig vaak volledig in carbon of kevlar uitgevoerd. Om harde zijwind het hoofd te bieden werd de voorvork tamelijk rechtop geplaatst. Dit maakte de fiets echter nogal nerveus. Tegenwoordig hebben roeifietsen een voorvork die een meer liggende positie hebben. Zo wordt het stuurgedrag rustiger en wordt het voorwiel meer naar voren geplaatst. Met het zwaartepunt verlaagd en meer naar achteren geplaatst kan er veel agressiever worden geremd dan de eerdere, hogere modellen.

THYS_22_staal_in_race

THYS 220: productiemodel

1990
Lees meer

Met de THYS 220 was het eerste productiemodel een feit. In de periode 1990 tot 1998 zijn er zo’n 50 gemaakt.antiek 8

Vroege versie kabelaandrijving op THYS 220

Lees meer

Al in 1990 liet de eerste kabelaangedreven roeifiets het potentieel zien van een stalen kabel, in plaats van een ketting. De naafversnelling bleek echter niet voldoende efficiënt en consumeerde nogal wat energie. Dit vermogenverlies kon de berijder zich niet veroorloven.

Kinderroeifiets

Lees meer

Onze verontschuldigingen, dit bericht is alleen beschikbaar in Brits Engels.

Het lage en lange THYS 280 prototype

1993
Lees meer

Met deze zeer lage roeifiets, voorzien van een stroomlijnkap, heeft Derk de 1994-editie van Parijs-Amsterdam gewonnen. Feitelijk is dit een driewielige roeifiets, aangezien er een skateboardwieltje is aangebracht op het laagste punt van het frame, om verkeersdrempels te kunnen nemen.

THYS_280_prototype

THYS 280

1994
Lees meer

Een zeer lage roeifiets, waarvan er slechts een stuk of elf  gemaakt zijn.antiek 7

Gebouwd vanaf 1994. Enkele van deze 280 modellen zijn uitgerust met een zeildoek kuip waardoor het een erg snelle roeifiets werd. De eerste Parijs – Amsterdam fietswedstrijd in 1994 werd gewonnen door deze roeifiets met kuip onder zeer slechte weersomstandigheden.antiek 5

Productielijn

1995 / 1996
Lees meer

Alle 220- en 280-modellen werken met de hand vervaardigd en gelast in Derk’s kleine werkplaats. Dit is een van de weinige momenten dat er een groot aantal voltooide fietsen op voorraad waren.

production_line_2

THYS 240, prototype

1997
Lees meer

Deze fiets kan ook voorzien worden van een stroomlijnkuip. Op de afgebeelde fiets zijn 6 bidons van ieder 0,75 liter aan boord. Volgens Derk echter niet genoeg voor een 6-uurs race zoals tijdens Cycle Vision in Lelystad. De 240 is de voorloper van de THYS 222, maar werd uiteindelijk iets te extreem bevonden qua zithoek en zithoogte.

thys_240_prototype

Thys 240 met stroomlijn

juni 1998
Lees meer

De Thys 240 (prototype) met stroomlijn (rubber/carbon) tijdens de 6-uurs race in 1998 (Cycle Vision, Lelystad). Thijs haalde hier een gemiddelde van 47,9 km/uur! Hij verreed ook de 1-uur met als resultaat een afstand van 53,8 kilometer.

De eerste versies van de snektransmissie

1997 / 1998
Lees meer

Het concept van de snekaandrijving is rond 1992 ontworpen door de broers Bert en Derk Thijs. Het duurde tot 1997 voordat Derk zijn eerste draaibank kocht en hij daadwerkelijk prototypes kon gaan maken. De allereerste Snek was van aluminium met een 2 mm brede groef (2 mm diep) voor een 2 mm kabel. Deze eerste poging was een primitieve versie van het tegenwoordige revolversysteem. Toentertijd had Derk moeite om het principe werkend te krijgen en er waren nog wel meer problemen. Hij begon met wat heeft meest eenvoudige schakelsysteem leek: door middel van een derailleur. Met de wijsheid was nu, ziet Derk deze stap als de grootste fout die hij ooit gemaakt heeft. “Ik had moeten focussen op dat revolversysteem”.

Prototype_revolver_1

Prototype_revolver_3

Thys 240 Parijs – Amsterdam

september 1998
Lees meer

Concentratie bij de start van Parijs – Amsterdam (start bij Disneyland). De 510 kilometer werd door Derk afgelegd in 13 uur en 53 minuten. Het record stond maar een week – met dank aan Ymte Sijbrandij – maar het was toch knap snel.

Eerste prototype THYS 222

Lees meer

Het eerste 222-model is geproduceerd in 1998 nadat bleek dat het 240-model was te extreem was voor het grote publiek. Een wat hoger model met een wat minder extreme zithoek werd ontworpen. Dat was nou voor de verandering eens een goede zet! De THYS 222 was het eerste type waarvan het frame werd geproduceerd in Taiwan in grotere aantallen. In feite was de wens van mijn kinderen Sara en Derk om een (dure) universitaire studie te gaan volgen voor mij de reden om de stap te zetten naar grotere aantallen. 100 frames per jaar in plaats van de pak weg 10 die ik zelf kon lassen. Bedankt jongens, dat jullie me in de goede richting duwden. En ook voor het inmiddels voltooien van jullie studie!

THYS_222_prototype_2

THYS_222_prototype_1

Goudklompje, de eerste RR-versie

2000
Lees meer

Deze goudkleurige 222 was het eerste prototype voor de RR-versie. Een groot aantal modificaties zijn doorgevoerd op het standaard 222 frame dat het asymmetrische achterwiel moest dragen. The naaf bevatte het roller ramp freewheel dat het aangrijpen (“inpik”) aan het begin van een slag sterk verbeterde.

THYS 222 RR-versie

2001
Lees meer

De RR-versie van de 222 heeft de THYS achternaaf met roller ramp freewheel clutch. Dit erg dure aangrijpsysteem geeft een directe grip op het achterwiel aan het begin van een slag. Er is dus geen dood stuk meer in het begin van een slag. Het schakelsysteem is verbeterd, maar niet perfect. De diameter van de snek is beperkt tot 120 mm. Alleen lange mensen zijn in staat om tijdens het rijden de laagste versnelling te pakken.

222 RR Tour de France-versie

2001
Lees meer

Foto: Derk Thijs tijdens de beklimming van de Alp d’ Huez

Speciaal voor de Rowingbike Tour de France werd een tussensnek gemonteerd om de noodzakelijke lage versnellingen te verkrijgen. Het systeem bleek echter zeer moeizaam te schakelen en zou nooit toegepast worden op seriemodellen. Het is een klein wonder dat de tussensnek de Tour de France overleeft heeft, toen in 2001. Het systeem vrat dagelijks twee stalen kabels op gedurende bergritten.

De Rowingbike Tour de France was een keerpunt in diverse opzichten: de tocht resulteerde in nieuwe technische ontwikkelingen en moedigde een aantal potentiele roeifietsers aan om daadwerkelijk een roeifiets te kopen.

De eerste CVT-versie op Goudklompje

Winter 2001/2002
Lees meer

Na mijn Tour de France-ervaringen met een slecht functionerende tussensnek was het me duidelijk dat ik het schakelsysteem drastisch moest aanpassen. De CVT was een mooie oplossing, hoewel de eerste versie met het ronde wiggenhuis nu en dan vastliep.

First_CVT_Version

Thys 230

2002
Lees meer

De Thys 230 met 20 inch achter- en 16 inch voorwiel. Dit is een van de eerste CVT’s.

THYS 222 prototype met twee 28 inch wielen

2003
Lees meer

Soms kan een test van extremen je verder helpen. Na de compacte THYS 230 met 20 en 16 inch wiel was het interessant om te weten hoe twee grote wielen de snelheid en rijgedrag van de roeifiets zouden beïnvloeden. Ik verwachtte een snelle fiets en spendeerde veel tijd aan het draaien en fresen van de voetenslee en wiggenhuis van het CVT-systeem. Uiteindelijk bleek het resultaat niet snel en erg onpraktisch.

THYS_222_prototype_met_28_inch_wielen_2

Speciale roeifietsen voor gebruik met één been

Lees meer

Het bleek dat de roeifiets een uitstekende oplossing is voor mensen die maar één been kunnen gebruiken. Er zijn zeker twaalf roeifietsers die slechts één been gebruiken bij het aandrijven van de roeifiets. Aanleren van de start is moeilijk, maar de inspanning loont.

Aangezien de rijder ook armen en rugspieren kan gebruiken, ligt de snelheid niet veel lager dan bij mensen die alle vier de ledematen kunnen gebruiken. Tegenwoordig heeft de voetenslee standaard al extra montagepunten voor de montage van meer kogellagers. Deze zijn nodig om de hoge asymmetrische krachten op te vangen die deze rijders uitoefenen op de voetenslee.

rowingbike_for_1_leg_1

THYS 240 productiemodel

Lees meer

Onderstaande foto laten de verbeterde tweede versie zien van het wighuis van het CVT-systeem. Op het eerste afgeronde wiggenhuis had je soms een hamer nodig om de wiggen los te krijgen :-(

Alle klanten hebben gratis een nieuw wiggenhuis gekregen met naaldlagers.

First_CVT_Version

Roeifietsaanhanger

april 2002
Lees meer

Leuk geprobeerd, maar het werkte niet. Erg onstabiel.

THYS 245 prototype

2002 / 2003
Lees meer

Ed Komen gedurende de klim naar Males, Kreta op zijn 245. De 245 is een verlaagd 240-prototype met asymmetrisch voorwiel. de zitting is ongeveer 4 cm lager dan bij de 240-serie.

THYS 250 zeer laag en lang

2003
Lees meer

De THYS 250 was een lopende studie voor een opvolger van de 222. Na het THYS 245 prototype probeerde ik een vergelijkbare zeer lage en snelle roeifiets te bouwen, waarbij bovendien een asymmetrisch achterwiel werd gebruikt. Het frame vormde het midden van de fiets, met het wiel links ervan en de snek aan de rechterzijde. In de framebuis werden grote wiellagers geplaatst.
Een zeer interessant project, maar geen succes.

THYS_250_2

THYS 250 45.1 km/u bij uursrace

2003
Lees meer

Nadat het 250-prototype was aangepast met een standaard achtervork, werd een nieuw uurrecord van 45,1 km/uur neergezet tijdens Cyclevision 2003.

Thys 222 Revolver

2005
Lees meer

De THYS 222 Revolver met 2 maal 20 inch wielen. De 178 mm snek was een voorloper van de 220 mm snek. Gemonteerd op een 20 inch wiel werd een zeer wenselijk verzet verkregen voor zeer steile hellingen zoals Calibier en L’Alpe d’Huez.

Het nieuwe revolver-schakelsysteem is ontwikkeld gedurende de winter van 2004-2005 en uitgebreid getest voor de introductie. Dankzij het revolversysteem en de kunststof snek, kan de stalen kabel worden vervangen door een Dyneema®  koord. Het is een sensatie om een Dyneema®  koord van 28 gram de zwaarste testrijder (ruim over de honderd kilo) bovenop de steilste bergen te zien brengen.

Foto: Martijn Mateman op Kreta

Tandem 2006 , Staal CrMo frame

2006
Lees meer

Na de introductie van het revolversysteem waren er geen wensen meer op het gebied van schakelsystemen. Het werkt gewoon prima. Dit gaf ruimte voor de volgende uitdaging: het bouwen van een goede roeitandem. Deze stalen versie werkte al erg goed, maar kon op een aantal punten nog verbeterd worden.

rowingbike_tandem_2

THYS 209 prototype staal 2006

2006
Lees meer

Na de ervaringen met de lage en lange prototypes werd een meer compact model, vergelijkbaar met de 222, ontworpen, gebouwd en getest. Dit was de stalen versie met aluminium stuur en een gewicht van 13 kg.

THYS 209 prototype aluminium

2007
Lees meer

Nog een verbeterd en lichter 209-prototype, slechts 11 kg. Martijn Mateman onderstreepte het belang van laag gewicht gedurende diverse beklimmingen. Het verbeterde zijn tijd naar Males, Kreta met 5 minuten. Hij bereikte Males in 40 minuten op een 5 kg lichtere roeifiets.

Aluminium Tandem

april 2007
Lees meer

Een lage, lichte en snelle tandem met twee 20 inch wielen. Kabels van de achterste rijder gaat direct naar de linker snek, zonder tussenas. De tandem presteerde zeer goed op de lange afstand en gedurende races. Langeafstandsracer Theo Homan heeft de fiets gekocht en legde 600 km extra af gedurende een 24-uurrace. Dit vergeleken met een eerdere 24-uurspoging door Richard Bruijn en Derk Thijs.

Focus op optimale carbon fiets

2007
Lees meer

Na de 209-prototypes was het duidelijk hoe de opvolger van de 222 eruit moest gaan zien. Het kostte veel rijd om de juiste bedrijf te vinden dat de productie zou gaan doen en om hun productieproces te bestuderen. Vervolgens werd het 209-ontwerp aangepast aan dit productieproces om de productie mogelijk te maken en om de stijfheid van diverse carbon delen te verbeteren.

De eerste samples kwamen kerstmis 2009 aan, serieproductie startte een half jaar later na uitgebreide tests.

THYS_209_carbon_2

Carbon tandem

2008 / 2009
Lees meer

De carbon tandem is ontworpen gedurende de winter van 2008 / 2009. De ouderwetse werkwijze: pak een stuk balsahout en schuim en vorm het zoals jij het wilt hebben. Het kostte ruim een jaar om de mallen te voltooien, maar het was al het werk en het wachten waard. In april 2010 was de eerste carbon tandem klaar en deze blijkt geweldig te rijden!

THYS_carbon_tandem_2

Carbon 209 Ertro 540/571

2017
Lees meer
An experiment from a few years back repeated in 2017 for a race in the park, Meppen, Germany.
A carbon 209 equipped with a carbon 24’’ front fork, 24 ‘’ front wheel  with 24 aero-spokes, Ertro 571 rear wheel  with 24 aero spokes and narrow fast high pressure tires.
The result is a beautiful rowingbike, a tiny bit faster than the regular 209 but very much less comfortable.
The more reclining position makes my back to hurt and the vibrations of the bike with the narrow tires are very uncomfortable.
The gain of speed is not much perhaps 1 or 1,5 km/h on a one hour time trial.
Nu